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Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbohydrates

2 Carbohydrates An organic compound that is the body’s main source of energy Sources:

3 Function of Carbohydrates
Primary source of energy for body (short-term) Sugar is absorbed in the small intestine Glucose is used in various tissues and organs Excess sugar is stored as Glycogen in the liver or in Adipose tissue as fat Complex vs. Simple Carbohydrates Video

4 Simple “Bad”Carbohydrates
Disaccharide Monosaccharide Sucrose = Table Sugar Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Milk Sugar Glucose + Galactose Very small molecules Exist in Pure Form Sugars – Glucose – the building block of sugars Fructose – fruit Galactose – Milk products Is Sugar Toxic Video?

5 Complex “Good” Carbohydrates
Polymer - A large molecule formed when small molecules of the same kind chain together Polysaccharides – Made of chemically linked mono-saccharides – from ten to several thousand Examples: Starch – stored in seeds and roots Fiber – give plants their structure

6 Carbohydrates

7 Structure of Starch Amylose Amylopectin Linear molecules
Multiple branches

8 Structure of Fiber Soluble Fiber (Dietary) Insoluble Fiber Cellulose
Forms a gel Slows digestion Insoluble Fiber Add bulk Laxative effect Do not dissolve Cellulose Glucose polymer Strengthen the plant’s cell walls and woody parts Fiber Video

9 How many carbs per day? Based on a 2,000 Calorie Diet: RDA: 250 g Carbohydrates g Fiber The average American only consumes 15 g of fiber per day.

10 RDA Carbohydrates = 4 calories/gram How many calories from carbohydrates in one slice of this bread?

11 Low-Carb Diets Ketosis Increase in Cholesterol
A dangerous metabolic state Body burns its own fat for fuel Results in kidney stones and organ failure Increase in Cholesterol Increase risk of Osteoporosis Excreting Calcium in urine Increase risk of Cancer Depriving body of essential nutrients

12 Sources

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