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Chapter 5 Formulating the research design

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Formulating the research design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Formulating the research design

2 Underlying issues of data collection and analysis
"Well begun is half done“ --Aristotle, quoting an old proverb

3 Underlying issues of data collection and analysis
Research design focuses upon turning a research question and objectives into a research project. It considers: Research strategies Research choices and Time horizons

4 Research Design and Tactics
The research onion Saunders et al, (2009) Figure 5.1 The research ‘onion’

5 The research design needs
Clear objectives derived from the research question To specify sources of data collection To consider constraints and ethical issues Valid reasons for your choice of design

6 The Process of Research Design
As you start thinking about your research question(s) you will also be thinking of the purpose of your research

7 Classification of the research purpose
Exploratory research Descriptive studies Explanatory studies

8 Classification of the research purpose
Exploratory research: Find out what is happening, to clarify your understanding of a problem. 3 ways for conducting: A search of the literature Interview experts in the subject Conducting focus group interviews Flexible and adaptable to change

9 Classification of the research purpose
Descriptive studies: Its object is to portray an accurate profile nof persons, events or situations. Usually a research cannot be simply descriptive since the reader’s reaction would be SO WHAT? So it is a means to an end, not an end in itself

10 Classification of the research purpose
Explanatory studies: Studies that establish causal relationships between variables

11 Experiment Action research
Research Strategies Experiment Action research Grounded theory Survey Ethnography Case study Archival research

12 An experiment will involve
Research Strategies An experiment will involve Definition of a theoretical hypothesis Selection of samples from know populations Random allocation of samples Introduction of planned intervention Measurement on a small number of dependent variables Control of all other variables

13 A classic experiment strategy
Research Strategies A classic experiment strategy Saunders et al, (2009) Figure 5.2 A classic experiment strategy

14 Research Strategies Survey: key features Popular in business research
Perceived as authoritative Allows collection of quantative data Data can be analysed quantitatively Samples need to be representative Gives the researcher independence Structured observation and interviews can be used

15 Case Study: key features
Research Strategies Case Study: key features Provides a rich understanding of a real life context Uses and triangulates multiple sources of data A case study can be categorised in four ways and based on two dimensions: single case v. multiple case (more ability to generalize) holistic case(choose 1 organization as a whole) v. embedded case(some departments or activities) Yin (2003)

16 Action research: key features
Research Strategies Action research: key features Research IN action - not ON action focusing on the purpose Involvement of practitioners in the research The researcher becomes part of the organisation Promotes change within the organisation Can have two distinct focii (Schein, 1999) – the aim of the research and the needs of the sponsor

17 The action research spiral
Research Strategies The action research spiral Saunders et al, (2009) Figure 5.3 The action research spiral

18 Grounded theory: key features Inductive deductive approach
Research Strategies Grounded theory: key features Inductive deductive approach Theory is built through induction and deduction Helps to predict and explain behaviour Develops theory from data generated by observations Is an interpretative process, not a logico-deductive one Based on Suddaby (2006)

19 Ethnography: key features
Research Strategies Ethnography: key features Inductive approach Aims to describe and explain the social world inhabited by the researcher Takes place over an extended time period Is naturalistic Involves extended participant observation such as studying gorillas in their natural habitat

20 Archival research: key features
Research Strategies Archival research: key features Uses administrative records and documents as the principal sources of data Allows research questions focused on the past Is constrained by the nature of the records and documents Example: historical research

21 The role of the practitioner-researcher
Research Strategies The role of the practitioner-researcher Key features Research access is more easily available The researcher knows the organisation Has the disadvantage of familiarity The researcher is likely to their own assumptions and preconceptions The dual role requires careful negotiation

22 Multiple research methods
Research choices Saunders et al, (2009) Figure 5.4 Research choices

23 Multiple research methods
Multiple method refers to those combinations where we use more than one data collection technique but restricted within either quantitative or qualitative world view. Mixed method approach Refers to an approach where both , quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques are used.

24 Multiple research methods
Reasons for using mixed method designs: (Table 5.1 ) Triangulation Facilitation Complementarity Generality Aid interpretation Study different aspects Solving a puzzle Source: developed from Bryman (2006)

25 Select the appropriate time horizon
Time Horizons Select the appropriate time horizon Cross-sectional studies the study of a phenomenon at a particular time. Because of time restrictions Longitudinal studies it has the capacity to study change and development

26 Credibility of research findings
Important considerations Reliability extent to which your data collection techniques will yield consistent finding (see threats) Validity concerned with whether findings are really about what they appear to be about (see threats) Generalisability whether findings may be equally applicable to other research settings such as other organizations Logic leaps and false assumptions your research design should have a logical flow and assumptions that can be defended.

27 Research design ethics
Remember ‘The research design should not subject the research population to embarrassment, harm or other material disadvantage’ Ex some universities do not allow collecting data from population not aware that it is subject of research Adapted from Saunders et al, (2009)

28 Research projects can be categorised as Research projects may be
Summary: Chapter 5 Research design turns a research question and objectives into a project that considers Strategies Choices Time horizons Research projects can be categorised as Exploratory Descriptive Explanatory Research projects may be Cross-sectional Longitudinal

29 Important considerations
Summary: Chapter 5 Important considerations The main research strategies may combined in the same project The opportunities provided by using multiple methods The validity and reliability of results Access and ethical considerations

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