Presentation on theme: "Applications of BiologySection 2 Section 2: Biology, Technology, and Society Preview Bellringer Key Ideas Biotechnology Around Us Applications of Biological."— Presentation transcript:
Applications of BiologySection 2 Section 2: Biology, Technology, and Society Preview Bellringer Key Ideas Biotechnology Around Us Applications of Biological Research Biology, Forensics, and Public Safety The Ethics of Biotechnology Summary
Applications of BiologySection 2 Bellringer Have you ever heard of Drosophila melanogaster? Fruit flies are commonly found near ripe fruit and are only about 3 mm long as adults. They are widely studied in genetics research, and their genome has recently been sequenced.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Key Ideas What is one way that genetic engineering affects our lives? How has biotechnology provided new tools for scientists to understand biological processes? How are biological factors used to verify an individual’s identity and to ensure public safety? What ethical issues are raised by the use of biotechnology?
Applications of BiologySection 2 Biotechnology Around Us Genetic engineering is a technology in which the genetic material of a living cell is changed. Genetic engineering can be used to create crops that yield more product or are resistant to pests. Bt corn has been genetically engineered to contain a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Visual Concept: Genetic Engineering
Applications of BiologySection 2 Biotechnology Around Us, continued This Bacillus thuringiensis gene allows the corn to make a toxin that kills the European corn borer. The use of Bt corn has raised crop yields and decreased the use of pesticides to control European corn borers.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Applications of Biological Research Nigel Atkinson uses genetically modified fruit flies to test how certain genetic changes affect a fruit fly’s response to alcohol. His research may help other scientists treat alcoholism in new ways. Gene technology can also be used to make vaccines and other medical products such as insulin. Some people with diabetes need to take insulin to help them metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Insulin is now made from bacteria that contain the human gene that produces insulin.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Visual Concept: Using Plasmids to Produce Insulin
Applications of BiologySection 2 Making a Genetically Engineered Vaccine
Applications of BiologySection 2 Applications of Biological Research, continued Nanotechnology is the science of changing individual atoms or molecules to create new products. For example, researchers are developing a very small, biodegradable template that may help damaged brain cells grow back after an injury.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Applications of Biological Research, continued Scientists are inspired by naturally occurring biomolecules, or organic compounds, to develop new materials such as some ceramics that are based on the process clams use to form their shells. Biomimetics is the application of biological processes and systems to solve design and engineering problems.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Applications of Biological Research, continued Familiar biomimetic products include hook-and-loop fasteners, modeled after burrs, and submarines, modeled after the swimbladder of bony fishes. The lobster-eye telescope collects and focuses X rays. Existing tools and methods are often adapted for new uses. CAT scans were developed to make detailed three- dimensional images of internal organs. Biologists now use them to create models of fossils and of living organisms.
Applications of BiologySection 2 How Telescopes Work
Applications of BiologySection 2 Biology, Forensics, and Public Safety Fingerprints, iris patterns, and genetic material are unique and can be used to identify people. The use of biological traits to determine a person’s identity is called biometrics. Fingerprints are one of the most common forms of evidence used in criminal investigations.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Biology, Forensics, and Public Safety, continued DNA fingerprinting is the use of a person’s unique pattern of DNA as a form of identification. Investigators can use hair or skin cells for DNA fingerprinting. Iris scans are as unique as a fingerprint.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Visual Concept: DNA Fingerprint
Applications of BiologySection 2 Biology, Forensics, and Public Safety, continued Scientists are working on developing new ways to detect and prevent the use of biological agents by terrorists. Handheld probes can be used to detect biological agents. Other researchers are focusing on vaccines and new antibiotic treatments for victims of biological weapons.
Applications of BiologySection 2 The Ethics of Biotechnology Advances in biotechnology raise ethical concerns that must be addressed, both by individuals and by society. Opponents of genetic engineering are concerned that genetically engineered organisms could harm the environment or that eating food made from those organisms might not be healthy.
Applications of BiologySection 2 The Ethics of Biotechnology, continued Some people object to changing an organism’s DNA, to techniques such as cloning, or to the use of human stem cells in research. Others think that limiting scientific research that might save lives or cure diseases is unethical. Biometric identification methods raise ethical issues related to privacy and to the potential improper use of the data.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Summary Genetic engineering is used to create crops that yield more product or are resistant to pests. Tools such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and computer models have expanded the potential applications of biological research.
Applications of BiologySection 2 Summary, continued Because biological factors such as fingerprints, iris patterns, and genetic material are unique, they can be used to determine an individual’s identity. Advances in biotechnology raise ethical concerns that must be addressed by individuals and society.