Presentation on theme: "Computer It is an electronic device which receives data, processes it and gives meaningful result. Main operations: Input Storing Processing Output Control."— Presentation transcript:
1 ComputerIt is an electronic device which receives data, processes it and gives meaningful result.Main operations:InputStoringProcessingOutputControl
3 CPU: Performs all the processing tasks of a computer. Also called “Brain of the Computer”.Controls all parts of a computer systemHas three components:Arithmetic and Logic Unit : has small locations called registers, and consists of Arithmetic and Logic sections.Control Unit : controls the operations of CPU, and governs transfer of data between IO devices and the system.Memory : RAM and ROM
4 Types of Computer Based on Sizes: Based on Use: Analog Computer Digital ComputerHybrid ComputerBased on Sizes:Super ComputerMain Frame SystemsMini ComputerPersonal ComputersMicro Computers
5 Generations of Computer First: , Vaccum Tubes/Electronic Valves, Magnetic Drum (about 1KB memory), Speed: 333msSecond: Transistors, Magnetic Core, tape and disk (about 100KB main memory), Speed: 10msThird: , Integrated Circuits, High Speed Magnetic Cores (about 1MB main memory), Speed: 100nsFourth: 1980-Now, Large Scale ICs, Semi-Conductor Memory(about 10 MB main memory), Speed: 10ns
6 Bits / Bytes / Words Unit Size Bit One Binary Digit Nibble 4 bits Byte Kilobyte (KB)1024 bytesMegabyte (MB)1024 KBGigabyte (GB)1024 MBTerabyte (TB)1024 GBPetabyte (PB)1024 TB
8 Types of keys on a keyboard: AlphanumericSpecialFunctionOutput DevicesMonitor (Video Display Terminal)ProjectorPrinterSound CardSpeakerVideo Card
9 Software Application Software System Software: Software that a user uses to accomplish a particular task.Eg: MS Word, Notepad, Adobe Reader etc. System Software:Software that is designed to operate the computer hardware.Provides a platform for running application software.Eg: device drivers, operating systems, servers, utilities.
10 Memory RAM: ROM: Dynamic RAM (DRAM) : needs periodic refreshing. Static RAM (SRAM): does not require periodic refreshingROM:PROMEPROMEEPROM
11 Programming Languages of Computer Machine LanguageAssembly LanguageHigh Level Languageeg: BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, JAVA , C#Fourth Generation Language (4GL)
12 Programming Languages of Computer HardwareMachine LanguageAssembly LanguageHigh level Language
13 Programming Languages of Computer Program CompilationConverts program in high level language to executable machine language.Converts entire document at once.Program InterpretationConverts document line by line.
14 Operating SystemsSet of programs that control, coordinate and supervises activities of a computer system.Types of OS:GUIBatch Processing Operating SystemReal-time Operating SystemMulti- User (eg: Time Sharing Systems)Multi-processingMulti-taskingMulti-threadingDistributed
16 MSDOS (Disc Operating System) Developed by Microsoft (1981) for micro computers.Was most popular in 80s and mid 90sSingle user OS.Character User Interface.Provides commands for File handling.It is not case sensitive.File names restricted to 8 chars.No spaces are allowed in filenames.It has various internal and external commands.
17 File Naming in DOS Primary Name: Secondary Name or Extensions eg: .exe , .com, .bat, .ovr, .doc, .txt .
18 Related Questions Microsoft Word is an example of a/an SBI PO 2010 Processing deviceApplication SoftwareInput deviceAns: Application SofwareC++ is a/an ………. language SBI PO 2010UnnecessaryObject orientedDevelopedMachineAssemblyAns: Object Oriented
19 ………. is a type of input machine. SBI PO 2010 MonitorPrinterPlotterKeyboardNone of theseAns: KeyboardWhich of the following is not an input unit? SBI PO 2010Touch padMouseScannerMonitorMicrophoneAns: Monitor
20 Program or instructions are included in …… of a system. PNB PO 2010 HardwareiconinformationSoftwareNone of theseAns: SoftwareThe capacity of memory is measured in terms ofPNB PO 2010bitbytenibblemegabyteAll of theseAns: megabyte
21 The place where data and program goes is known as The place where data and program goes is known as Allahabad Bank PO 2010mousekeyboardCPUCUNone of theseAns: CPUIn MICR, C stands forPNB PO 2010codecolorcomputercharacterNone of theseAns: Character
22 Which of the following is not one of the four major data processing functions of a computer? Allahabad Bank PO 2010Gathering dataProcessing data into informationAnalyzing the data or informationStoring the data or informationNone of theseAns: Analyzing the data or information.These are specially designed computers that perform complex calculations extremely rapidly.Syndicate Bank PO 2007serversSuper computerslaptopsmainframesNone of theseAns: Super computers
23 It is the science that attempts to produce machines that display the same type of intelligence that humans do? Bank of India PO 2010NanoscienceNanotechnologySimulationAINone of theseAns: AI
24 Word Processor (MSWord) Word Window and its components:Title barMenu BarStandard Tool BarRulerScroll Bars (Vertical and Horizontal)WorkspaceFormatting tool barDrawing tool barStatus bar.
27 Characteristics of Word Editing Feature.Permanent storage facility.Formatting (Changing the text in any form)GraphicsThesaurus (For changing word with its Synonyms)Find and Replace.Headers and FootersPage Orientation.Spell Checker.Mail Merge.Bullets and Numbering.Tables.
32 Terms used in Excel Worksheet Row Number Column Letter Cell Cell PointerCurrent CellRange of CellsWork BookData in WorksheetFormulaFunctionsCell Referencing : Absolute/Relative/MixedCharts: Area/ Column/ Line/ Bar/ Pie
33 Some Excel Shortcuts Ctrl + A Select all components of page. Ctrl + B Bold highlighted section.Ctrl + I Italic highlighted section.Ctrl + K Insert Link.F2 Edit the selected cell.F5 Go to a specific cell.F7 Spell check selected text or document.F11 Create chart.Ctrl + Shift + ; Enter current time.Ctrl + ; Enter current date.Shift + F3 Open excel formula window.Shift + F5 Open search box.Ctrl + F6 Switch between open workbooks/window.Ctrl + Page up Switch between excel worksheets in same document.Alt + = create formula to sum all above cells into the cell currently selected.
34 Some Excel Shortcuts Ctrl + 5 Strikethrough highlighted selection. Ctrl + Arrow Key Move to next section of text.Ctrl + Space Select entire column.Shift + Space Select entire row.Ctrl + F9 Minimize current windowCtrl + F10 Maximize current windowCtrl + ’ Insert value of above cell into current cell.Ctrl + Tab Move between two or more open excel files.Ctrl +Shift + $ Format number in currency format.
35 MS Powerpoint It is the presentation graphics part of MS Office suite. We can create various presentation materials like charts, graphics, slides, handouts, overheads etc.It can be used to create slide shows.Some methods for creating new presentation are: Auto Content Wizard, Design Templates, Sample Presentation and Blank Presentation.File formats of powerpoint are: the 2003 default .ppt(presentation), .pps (powerpoint show), .pot (template).Custom animations can be used to create small story boards by animating pictures to enter, exit or move.Powerpoint presentations can consist of several pages or slides.
37 Common Operations Apply a Template to a Presentation A template is a PowerPoint presentation that defines how your text and slide background will look. A plain presentation is simply black text on a white background.Define Slide Transition and AnimationTransition effects help define how a presentation move from one slide to the next. Animation defines how you want your listed information to come in and out of the presentation.Edit the Slide Master or Individual SlidesThe Slide Master in a template is a slide that controls the formatting, text, and objects that appear on every slide in your presentation.
38 Some Powerpoint Shortcuts F5 Start the slide show from first slide.Shift + F5 Start the slide show from current slide.F7 Check the spelling of text.Shift + F7 Thesaurus (suggest synonyms).Ctrl + F9 Minimize current window
39 MS AccessIt is an RDBMS that combines Microsoft Jet Database Engine with GUI and software development tools.The Microsoft Jet Database Engine ( JET stands for Joint Engine Technology), is a database engine on which several Microsoft products have been built. A database engine is the underlying component of a database.It stores data in its own format, and can link or import data from other Access databases.A database is a tool for collecting and organizing information.
40 MS AccessIn a RDBMS data is stored in the form of tables or relations. RDBMS is a multi-table database, where tables are related to one other.Each table has number of rows and columns.Each column or field, represents a categoryEach entry in a table is known as a row or a record.MS Access is an RDBMS that enables us to manage relational database in windows environment.It enables us to enter, retrieve and modify/update data and also create forms and reports.Databases created in the Access 2007 format have the file extension .accdb, and databases created in earlier Access formats have the file extension .mdb
41 Database ObjectsTables: store data in form of rows and columns.Queries: For viewing data from a table.Forms: enable us to enter, view and modify in a table. Also known as “data entry screens”.Reports: generate reports based on tables and query results.Data Access Page: they are web pages to view and work with data from the Internet or an intranet, where data is stored in an Access database. (no longer supported in MS Access 2007).Macros: series of commands and functions that can be executed when a task is needed to be performed.Modules: Visual basic procedures and declarations stored as one unit.
42 Some Access Shortcuts Ctrl + N Open new DB. Ctrl + O Open existing DB. Alt + F4 Quit Access.Ctrl + P Open print dialog box for printing current or selected object.P open print dialog box from print previewS open page setup dialog box from print previewC or Esc cancel print preview or layout preview.F12 or Alt + F12 open Save As dialog box.Ctrl + S or Shift + F12 or Alt + Shift + F2 : save a DB object.
43 F4 or Alt + Down Arrow : open a combo box F9 : refresh the contents of a lookup field, list box or combo box.Page Up: move up one page.Page Down: move down one page.Up Arrow: move up one line.Tab: exit the combo box or list box.Ctrl + F: open find tab in Find and Replace dialog box.Ctrl + H: open replace tab in Find and Replace dialog box.Shift + F4: to find the next occurrence of the text specified in Find and Replace dialog box when the dialog box is closed.
44 Related QuestionsIn application software (MS Excel), there is ……. immediately below the title bar SBI PO 2010Text areaMenu barStandard tool barTask barAns: Menu barJust below the formatting bar, there is SBI PO 2010Task barTool barFormula barScroll barAns: Formula bar
45 “Comic Sans Ms” is example of SBI PO 2010 Font typeFont faceFont layoutFont structureFont designAns: Font faceBy ……., text can be made more attractive in different colors, shapes and sizes SBI PO 2010Word ArtPictureWord art text boxMail mergeNone of theseAns: Word Art
46 In which grouping, the formatting of text is done in Word? PNB PO 2010 Telephone no, date of birth, name of customer are the examples of PNB PO 2010recorddatafiledatabaseNone of theseAns: DataIn which grouping, the formatting of text is done in Word? PNB PO 2010Tables, Paragraphs and Indexes.Paragraphs, Indexes and Sections.Characters, Sections and Paragraphs.Indexes, Characters and Tables.None of theseAns: Tables, Paragraphs and Indexes.
47 The item cut during cutting and pasting process is stored temporarily in PNB PO 2010 ROMHard DriveDisketteDashboardClipboardAns: Clipboard
48 Data Communication and Network Signals: electric or electromagnetic encoding of data.Signaling: propagation of signal along suitable medium.Transmission: communication of data achieved by propagation and processing of signals.Parallel data transmission: each wire carries a bit of information.Series data transmission: bits are sent sequentially. (slower as compared to parallel transmission)Synchronous transmission: characters are transmitted as groups, with control characters in beginning and end of data stream.Asynchronous transmission: each char is transmitted separately.
49 Modes of Communication: SimplexHalf duplexFull duplex.Types of Computer Network:LAN (Local Area Network) eg: nw in a buildingMAN (Metropolitan Area Network) eg: nw connecting branches in different cities.WAN ( Wide Area Network) eg: internet.Topology: physical layout of a network.MeshStarBusRing
52 Tree Topology: combination of Bus and Star topology.
53 InternetIt is a global interconnection of systems, linked together by various means.For communication to be possible an addressing mechanism and safe means of moving data is requiredThe rules governing the sending and receiving data are implemented in TCP and IP protocols.TCP divides data stream into small packets.Internet Protocol puts addressing information on these packets.IP Address: is a 4 byte (32 bit) number that represents a logical address of a host.
54 Hosts: individual systems/machines at particular location. IP VersionsIPv4 eg:IPv6 eg: 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (128 bits or 16 bytes)Hosts: individual systems/machines at particular location.Domain is a general category that a computer on internet belongs to.Domain names serve as humanly-memorable names for Internet participants, like computers, networks, and services.Domain Name Service(DNS): resolves queries for domain names into IP Addresses for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide.
55 E- Mail: used for sending electronic messages. SMTP (Simple mail Transfer Protocol): is an Internet standard for transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Use net and news groups are set up by people for sharing common interests.Usenet is a worldwide distributed internet discussion system.Telnet: is a program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. Telnet is a common way to remotely control web servers.
56 Gopher protocol displays set of resources on Internet in the form of menus or list of items. World Wide Web (WWW): is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the internet. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): is the main international standardization organization for development of standards for the world wide web.Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML): it is a tag based language that is used to create web pages.Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML): is an ISO-standard technology for defining generalized markup languages for documents. HTML, XHTML and XML are all examples of SGML-based languages.Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP): used to manage transfer of HTML documents.
57 Uniform Resource Locator (URL): is a way to avail resources on internet. Browser: is an application program which is used to explore internet resources.File Transfer Protocol (FTP): is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP- based network.Modem (Modulator-Demodulator): enables a computer to transmit data over telephone line.Wide Area Information Service (WAIS) : is a client- server text searching system that is used to search index databases or libraries on remote computers.Mosaic is the web browser credited with popularizing the WWW. developed at the National Centre for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). It gives access to internet resources by using GUI allowing users to navigate through documents.
58 Information Technology IT refers to the branch of engineering that deals with manipulation, storage, retrieval and transmission(sharing) of information.It includes both hardware and software.IT now plays a major role in our day-to- day activities, and has automated various tasks which were earlier done manually.
59 Computer VirusA computer virus is a malicious program that can copy itself and infect various systems.It spreads from one computer to another via network or internet, or through a removable media such as floppy disc, CD, DVD, USB drives etc.Some of the most popular viruses that came into light so far are:I Love You (2000)Code Red (2001)Nimada (2001)Melissa (1999)Sasser (2004)
60 Some Antivirus software are: Malware, short for malicious software, is software to help hackers disrupt users computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain unauthorized access to a computer system.Malware includes computer viruses, worms, trojan horses, spyware, adware, and other malicious programs.Antivirus Software can be used as preventive measure from viruses. They can destroy or remove viruses by finding them.Back up of data on other mediums can negate the losses incurred if data gets misplaced.Some Antivirus software are:Symantec Norton AntivirusKaspersky AntivirusMcAfee AntivirusPanda SecurityTrend MicroBitdefender
61 Related Questions What is the full form of PPP? SBI PO 2010 Power to Process PointPoint to Point ProtocolPoint to Power ProtocolProtocol for PowerpointNone of theseAns: Point to Point ProtocolIn HTML, which tag is used to give background color?SBI PO 2010<Bg><Bg colour><Bgc><Background>Ans: <Bg colour>
62 To hyperlink on web page through HTML which tag is used? SBI PO 2010<a href><a><link><hlink><href>Ans: <a href>…. Is a folder where virus suspected files are kept.SBI PO 2010Junk MailSpam MailBoth 1 and 2DeleteVirus affected folderAns: both 1 and 2
63 Which tag is used to invoke form from HTML language? …. does work related to exchange of data between the computers .SBI PO 2010Sound CardNetwork CardExpansion SlotModemNone of these.Ans: ModemWhich tag is used to invoke form from HTML language?SBI PO 2010<Form><Form method post><Form invoke><Form>< invoke>None of theseAns: <Form method post>