2 Ethnicity ReviewedAs we previously discussed, ethnicity refers to the cultural background of a group of people, as opposed to race, which refers to physical/ biological background.Therefore, people of the same ethnic group may have the same religion, language, customs/ traditions, clothing, music/ art, clothing, etc.
3 Ethnicity and Nationality Cultural similarities within an ethnic group typically lead to a strong sense of togetherness and unity.In an effort to preserve their culture, many ethnic groups seek self-determination, which is the right to self-government.When an ethnic group becomes a country, they become known as a nationality.Multiple ethnicities within a country can lead to conflict and in many cases, violence.
4 What is a nation-state?Ethnic groups may seek to create a nation-state, which is a country dominated by one ethnicity.Essentially, the boundaries of a country are drawn around an ethnic group.This allows an ethnic group to govern themselves based on their own values and culture.Examples: Japan, most of Europe, Israel, former Yugoslavia
7 Multi-Ethnic StateA multi-ethnic state is any country with many different ethnic groups living in its borders.Typically, these groups co-exist peacefully, but sometimes ethnic groups want to break away and form their own states.Examples: USA!, Russia
13 Centripetal vs. Centrifugal Forces Centripetal (towards the center)Centrifugal (away from the center)Anything that unites a countryNationalism (pride)Songs, flagsSame lang/ religion/etc.SportsCommon historyStrong leader/ governmentAnything that divides a countryCultural differencesWeak central governmentRegional over national pride
14 Yugoslavia and Balkanization The former Yugoslavia is an excellent example of a multi-ethnic country that broke apart into many smaller nation-states.Where? Balkan Peninsula (SE Europe, north of Greece)When? Yugoslavia was created after WWI.Who? Many ethnic groups, inc. Bosnians, Albanians, Croats, Serbians, Slovenes. Also, different religions (Christianity, Islam) and languages.On paper, a recipe for conflict.
15 Yugoslavia and Balkanization Yugoslavia was held together by a strong dictator (centripetal force), Joseph (Josip) Tito fromTito kept the various ethnic/ religious group from fighting each other.After Tito’s death in 1980, various groups began fighting for power and land, resulting in war and genocide (ethnic cleansing)The break up of a state into many smaller states based on ethnic divisions is known as balkanization.Today, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herz, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Macedonia are all independent nation-states.