Presentation on theme: "Power Point Slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell Chapter 13 Survey Designs."— Presentation transcript:
Power Point Slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell Chapter 13 Survey Designs
Educational Research 2e: Creswell What is survey research? Survey research designs are procedures in quantitative research in which investigators administer a survey to a sample or to the entire population of people in order to describe the attitudes, opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of the population.
Educational Research 2e: Creswell When do you use a survey? Assess trends Opinions, beliefs, and attitudes Follow-up analyses Evaluations
Educational Research 2e: Creswell What are the types of survey designs? Changes in a sub-population group identified by a common characteristic over time Time of Data Collection Study Over TimeStudy at One Point in Time LongitudinalCross-sectional Changes in the same people over time Trends in the same population over time Attitudes and Practices Community Needs Program Evaluation TrendCohortPanel Group Comparisons National Assessment
Educational Research 2e: Creswell What are key characteristics of survey research? Sampling from a population Collecting data through questionnaires or interviews Designing instruments for data collection Obtaining a high response rate
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Population, Target Population, Sampling Frame, Sample The Population The group of individuals having one characteristic that distinguishes them from other groups. The Target Population or Sampling Frame The actual list of sampling units from which the sample is selected. The Sample The group of participants in a study selected from the target population from which the researcher generalizes to the target population.
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Reducing error in survey research Reducing Coverage Error: have a good sampling frame list on which to select individuals Reducing Sampling Error: select as large a sample from the population as possible Reducing Measurement Error: use a good instrument with clear, unambiguous questions and response options Reducing non-response error: use rigorous administration procedures to achieve as large a return rate as possible
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Forms of data collection based on who completes or records the data Who Completes or Records the Data? ParticipantResearcher Mailed Questionnaire Electronic Questionnaire One on One To a Group Over Telephone Individual Interview Focus Group Interview Telephone Interview
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Aspects of survey instrument design Personal Attitudinal Behavioral Sensitive Scale Open-ended
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Question construction problems Question is unclear Multiple questions Question is wordy Question is negatively worded Overlapping responses Unbalanced response options Mismatch between questions and answers Question includes overly technical language Not all questions are applicable to all the participants
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Pilot testing Test on a small number of individuals in the sample Ask for written feedback on the questions Revise the survey based on the written comments Exclude the pilot participants from the final sample for the study
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Response rate Mail out original questionnaire with cover letter Follow it in two weeks with a second mailing of questionnaire to those who have not responded Follow again in two weeks with a postcard to non-respondents reminding them to complete the questionnaire
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Three phase survey administration procedure Step 1: First Mailing of Survey Step 2: Second Mailing of Survey Step 3: Postcard Mailing 2 Weeks Start 6 Weeks Time
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Planning and conducting a mailed questionnaire survey Write a cover letter to invite the participants to complete the questionnaire Form and construct the questionnaire Identify what statistical procedures will be used to analyze data from the mailed questionnaire
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Planning and designing an interview survey The interviewer should maintain a neutral stance during the interview Train the interviewers prior to the interview Take good notes of responses or use a tape recorder For telephone interviews, develop a telephone interview guide prior to the interview
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Steps in conducting survey research Decide if a survey is the best deign to use Identify the research questions or hypotheses Identify the population, the sampling frame and the sample Determine the survey design and data collection procedures Develop or locate an instrument Administer the instrument Analyze the data to address the research questions or hypotheses Write the report
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating survey research Was the target population or sampling frame clearly specified? Was the sampling procedure specified? If a random sample was not used, were modifications from it explained? Was the sample clearly identified and the basis on which it was chosen specified? Did the type of survey match the questions or hypotheses advanced by the author? Was it clear whether a questionnaire or an interview survey comprised the form of data collection? Did the researcher identify the basis for selecting or developing the instrument?
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating survey research Was information reported on reliability and validity of scores from past use of the questionnaire or interview? Did the author mention the dates on which the questionnaire or interview was administered? Were the administration procedures clearly identified? If a questionnaire was used, were the procedures for obtaining responses identified? Were follow-up procedures used to ensure a high response rate? Did the data analysis match the research questions or hypothesis to be answered in the study?
Educational Research 2e: Creswell Evaluating survey research If an interview was used, were the field procedures for collecting this information specified? Were demographic characteristics, previous experience, training, and monitoring discussed for the interviewer(s)? Did the researcher check on the reliability and validity of scores from the data collection in the study? Was the study written scientifically and ethically?