Presentation on theme: "Qualitative Research Methods"— Presentation transcript:
1 Qualitative Research Methods InterviewingQualitative Research Methods
2 Interviewing What is interviewing? “It is a process of finding out what others feel and think about their worlds. The result is to understand the major points of their message ”(Rubin & Rubin, 1995)“Interviewing is a philosophy of learning.”(
3 Interviewing What is interviewing? Interview: a purposeful conversation in which one person asks prepared questions (interviewer) and another answers (respondent) them(Frey & Oishi, 1995)
4 InterviewingTasksTo understand the meaning of what the interviewee says- enter into their perspectiveTo describe the meanings of central theme in the life of the intervieweeTo cover both factual and a meaning level(Kvale, 1996)
5 Interviewing Why Interviews? To generate insights and concepts, not generalize about themExpand our understandingTo search for exceptions to the ruleTo document historical idiosyncratic cases/personalities
6 Interviewing Why Interviews? 5. To gain information about a particular topicAs a tool to gather information for additional research
7 Interviewing Why Interviews? To gain insight into people’s thoughts & feelingsEvents cannot be replicated
8 Interviewing Information Obtained Narratives Accounts Stories Myths Etc.
9 Interviewing Types of Interviews They way and type of interview we use depends on what we want to know.Not only do you need to be a good conversationalist, but also a good listener.(Rubin & Rubin, 1995)
10 Interviewing Types of Interviews Topical: concerned with facts and sequence of an event- reconstruction of the experienceLife Histories: deal with individual experiences or rites of passage- narratives that interpret the past
11 Interviewing Types of Interviews Evaluation: examines new programs or developments in order to offer suggestions for improvement/critiquesCultural: focuses on norms, values, understandings, and taken-for-granted rules of behavior of a group or society- typical shared activities & their meanings
12 Interviewing 3 Interview Structures Highly Structured/Standardized 1. Wording of questions is predetermined2. Order of questions is predetermined3. Interview is oral form of a written surveyIncludes demographic data(i.e. US Census Bureau)
13 Interviewing 3 Interview Structures Semi-structured: Includes a mix of more and less structured questionsIncorporates flexibilitySpecific data required from all respondentsLargest part of the interview guided by list of topics to be exploredNo predetermined wording or order
14 Interviewing 3 Interview Structures Unstructured/Informal: Open-ended questionsFlexible, exploratoryMore conversation-likeUsed when researcher does not know much about the phenomenonUsed primarily in ethnography, participant observation, and case study
15 Interviewing Good Questions to Ask Experience & behavior - Tell me about a typical day at work; what are you likely to do first thing in the morning once you arrive at work?2. Opinion & values- What is your opinion as to whether The US was right in invading Iraq?
16 Interviewing Good Questions to Ask 3. Feelings - How do you feel about discontinuing the use of the Euro cent?Knowledge- Questions about participant’s actual factual knowledge about a subject
17 Interviewing Good Questions to Ask Sensory questions - Tries to elicit specific data about what was seen, heard, touched, etc.- What were the smells at the beach the day you visited?6. Background/demographic
18 Interviewing Good Questions to Ask 7. Hypothetical - Suppose it were my first day in this training program. What would it be like?8. Devil’s advocate- Some people say that people who lost their job did something to bring about being fired. What would you say to them?
19 Interviewing Good Questions to Ask Ideal position - Would you describe what you think the ideal training program would be like?10. Interpretive- Tell me a time when . . .- Give me an example . . .- Tell me more about . . .- What was it like for you when . . .
20 Interviewing Role of the Interviewer Locate and enlist cooperation of respondents2. Motivate people to do a good jobClarify any confusion/concernsObserve quality of response- ask good questions
21 Interviewing Role of the Interviewer Conduct a good/thorough interview Actively listenDo not interrupt or finish interviewee’s sentences
22 Interviewing Things to Consider Before Interview The investigator’s motives and intentions and the inquiry’s purposeThe protection of the respondentsWho had final say over the interview/study’s contentPayment (if any)Logistics
23 InterviewingProbesProbes: questions or comments that follow up something already asked- silence- overt encouragement- elaboration- ask for clarification- repetition
24 Interviewing Recording & Transcribing 3 Ways to Record: Tape record Take notes during the interviewWrite down as much as can be remembered as soon as possible after the interview- Should be avoided!
25 Interviewing Recording & Transcribing Verbatim transcription is the best way to transcribe interview data1. Number every line(see handout)2. Single space comments, but double space between speakers3. Very tedious and time consuming
26 Interviewing Strengths & Weakness Strengths: Enables researcher to examine the level of understanding a respondent has about a particular topicCan be used as formative assessment- explore respondent’s feelings before using second method
27 Interviewing Strengths & Weakness Strengths: Reliable source of data 4. Relatively quick and easy to create, code and interpret5. No worries about response rates, biased samples, incomplete questionnaires, etc.
28 Interviewing Strengths & Weakness Weaknesses: Time consuming Quality dependent on the responses givenPossibility that the presence of the researcher is influencing the way the respondent is responding