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The Nervous system. Do Now Put together the puzzle without talking, making eye contact, or using hand gestures. Did you find this difficult? What would.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nervous system. Do Now Put together the puzzle without talking, making eye contact, or using hand gestures. Did you find this difficult? What would."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nervous system

2 Do Now Put together the puzzle without talking, making eye contact, or using hand gestures. Did you find this difficult? What would make it easier? How does this relate to your body?

3 Communication Nearly all multicellular organisms have communication systems. Specialized cells carry messages from one cell to another so that communication among all body parts is smooth and efficient.

4 Communicate to maintain homeostasis There are two systems used for communication in your body: The nervous system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli with the use of nerves The endocrine system performs a similar function with the use of hormones

5 5 Nervous Response Stimulus: any change that results in a change in the organism. temperature, light, pressure, sound, smell, etc. Response: any action resulting from a stimulus. contraction of muscle cells secretion by a gland stimulation of another nerve fiber.

6 Neurons Messages carried by the nervous system are electrical signals = impulses Nerve cells that transmit impulses = neurons Sensory neurons: carry impulses from sense organs to the spinal cord and brain Motor neurons: carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands Interneurons: connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them

7 Parts of a Neuron Cell body = largest part containing nucleus and cytoplasm (most metabolic activity occur here) Dendrites = short, branched extensions spreading out from the cell body and they carry impulses from the environment or other neurons towards the cell body Axon = long fibers that carry impulses away from the cell body and ends at the axon terminal

8 Axon terminals Myelin sheath Nodes Cell body Axon Nucleus Dendrites Section 35-2 A Neuron

9 Nerves Neurons bundle together to form nerves Some nerves may be only a few neurons, and others may be hundreds or thousands The myelin sheath may insulate axons by surrounding it There may be some gaps in the myelin sheath called nodes Impulses jump from one node to the next, increasing the speed impulses travel

10 Resting Nerve Nerve impulses are electrical The electric potential is created as the result of a sodium - potassium pump It uses ATP to pump sodium ions (Na+) out and potassium ions (K+) in = active transport This results in a negative charge inside the cell membrane and positive charge outside = resting potential

11 Nerve Impulse An impulse begins when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron or by the environment. An impulse causes positively charged sodium ions to flow in temporarily reversing the charge of the cell membrane = action potential As the impulse passes, positively charged potassium ions flow out and the charges restore to the normal resting potential

12 At the leading edge of the impulse, the sodium gates open. The membrane becomes more permeable to Na + ions and an action potential occurs. As the action potential passes, potassium gates open, allowing K + ions to flow out. The action potential continues to move along the axon in the direction of the nerve impulse. At rest. Action Potential Section 35-2 Figure 35-7 An Impulse Action Potential

13 Synapse At the end of the neuron, the impulse reaches an axon terminal where the impulse may be passed along to another neuron or another cell The location where a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell = synapse The synapse is a small gap that separates the axon terminal from the dendrites of the next neuron or another cell The terminals contain tiny sacs or vesicles filled with neurotransmitters = chemicals used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse The neurotransmitters stimulate the next neuron The impulse will continue with the stimulation exceeds the cell’s threshold

14 Vesicle Axon Axon terminal Synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter Receptor Dendrite of adjacent neuron Direction of Impulse Section 35-2 Figure 35-8 The Synapse

15 Reaction activity Reaction time = the amount of time required for an impulse travel from your sensory neurons to your motor neurons


17 The Nervous System Neurons work together forming the nervous system There are two major divisions of the nervous system: Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

18 Parts of the Nervous system Central nervous system (CNS): Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS): Sensory division Motor division Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system

19 Central Nervous System The CNS is the control center of the body: Relays messages Processes information Analyzes information

20 Brain and Spinal cord Both are protected by bone wrapped in 3 layers of connective tissue = meninges layers may have a space between them filled with cerebrospinal fluid which protects (shock absorber) and exchanges nutrients and waste

21 Brain About 100 billion neurons, mainly interneurons Major parts of the brain: Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain stem Thalamus Hypothalamus

22 Pons Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Cerebrum Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Cerebellum Pineal gland Thalamus Section 35-3 Figure 35-9 The Brain

23 Spinal Cord Links communication between the brain and the rest of the body 31 pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord connecting brain to body Reflexes = quick, automatic responses to stimuli are processed directly in the spinal cord

24 Spinal nerve Central canalGray matter White matter Meninges Section 35-3 Figure 35-11 The Spinal Cord

25 Peripheral Nervous System Consists of nerves and associated cells that are not part of the brain or spinal cord Receives information from the environment and relays commands from the CNS to organs and glands Divided into two parts: Sensory division: transmits impulses from sense organs to the CNS Motor division: transmits impulses from the CNS to the muscles or glands PNS animation (Pain receptor) : layAnimation.aspx?gcid=000054&ptid=17 layAnimation.aspx?gcid=000054&ptid=17

26 Somatic System Part of motor division that regulates activities that are under conscious control (movement of skeletal muscles) Some reflexes too

27 What is a Reflex? A reflex is an involuntary behavior. Reflexes are usually coordinated in the spinal cord not the brain. They are present from birth They are automatic They are meant to protect the body Examples: blinking (keeps your eyes hydrated) pulling your hand away when you touch something hot. changing pupil size as you move from dark to light.

28 Receptors & Effectors Receptor: a specialized nervous tissue that is sensitive to a specific stimulus. nerve cells in skin eyes ears taste buds Effectors: the part/s of the body that respond muscles or glands

29 Reflex Arc The pathway that an impulse travels: 1. from the sensory receptor 2. up the sensory neuron 3. over the synapse 4. to the spinal cord (interneuron) 5. over another synapse 6. back down the motor neuron 7. to the effector Reflex arc animations: 1. 2.

30 Autonomic System Part of the motor division that regulates activities that are automatic or involuntary (heart beat and smooth muscle in digestive system and blood vessels) Two parts that have opposite effects on the organs they control: Sympathetic (“gas pedal”) Parasympathetic (“brake”)

31 Concept Map which consists of is divided into that make up which is divided into Section 35-3 The Nervous System Sensory nerves Motor nerves Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system

32 Sensory Receptors Neurons that react directly to stimuli from the environment and send impulses to other neuron and CNS Light Sound Motion Chemicals Pressure Changes in temperature

33 Sense organs Sensory receptors are concentrated in the sense organs: Eyes Ears Nose Mouth Skin

34 Types of Sensory receptors Sensory receptors within each organ enable it to respond to particular stimuli. The five general categories of sensory receptors are: Pain receptors Thermoreceptors Mechanoreceptors Chemoreceptors Photoreceptors

35 The 5 Senses See Hear Smell Taste Touch

36 See (Vision) Photoreceptors = sense light

37 Hearing and Balance Sound = vibration in air detected by mechanoreceptors Balance = As head moves, fluid shifts and hair cells bend and send impulses to the CNS to determine body motion and position

38 Smell Smell = ability to detect chemicals detected by chemoreceptors in nasal passageway and send impulses to CNS through sensory nerves

39 Taste How food tastes is strongly influenced by smell Taste = ability to sense chemicals by chemoreceptors in taste buds mostly on tongue (sweet, sour, salty and bitter – sensitivity is different on different parts of tongue)

40 Touch Skin = largest sense organ containing pain receptors, thermoreceptors, and mechanoreceptors

41 Senses activity Different parts of skin have different sensitivity because there’s a different numbers of receptors at different locations

42 Problems Drugs = substance that changes the structure or function of the body Drugs can interfere with the action of neurotransmitters at the synapse, which can disrupt the functioning of the nervous system

43 Stimulants Increase the actions regulated by the nervous system by increasing the release of neurotransmitters at synapses (increase heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate) Amphetamines Cocaine Nicotine Caffeine

44 Depressants Decrease the actions regulated by the nervous system (lowering heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, relaxing muscles, and relieving tension) Alcohol Tranquilizers

45 Alcohol One of the most dangerous and abused depressant drug that slows down functioning rate of CNS Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) = a group of birth defects caused by the effects of alcohol on the fetus (heart defects, malformed faces, delayed growth, and poor motor development Alcoholism = disease of people who have become addicted to alcohol Causes damage to liver where alcohol is broken down

46 Addictions Some drugs that act on neurons of the pleasure centers of the brain can produce an addiction = an uncontrollable craving for more of the drug or dependence on a drug Cocaine – causes sudden release of the neurotransmitter dopamine Opiates – mimic natural endorphins to overcome pain Marijuana – produces temporary feeling of euphoria and disorientation Drug abuse = using any drug in a way that most doctors couldn’t approve

47 Section 35-5 Commonly Abused Drugs Used to increase alertness, relieve fatigue Used to relieve anxiety, irritability, tension Used to relieve pain Stimulants Depressants Opiates Amphetamines Barbiturates Tranquilizers Morphine Codeine Increase heart and respiratory rates; elevate blood pressure; dilate pupils; decrease appetite Slow down the actions of the central nervous system; small amounts cause calmness and relaxation; larger amounts cause slurred speech and impaired judgement Act as a depressant; cause drowsiness, restlessness, nausea Drug TypeMedical UseExamplesEffects on the body

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