2 Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts Vertical Articulation at a Glance
3 Common Core State Standards Our goals for today… Participants will…Review their previous experiences with the CCSSDeepen their understanding of the vertical articulation of the standardsDeconstruct a standard and begin to evaluate its rigor as defined by Hess’s Cognitive Rigor matrixConsider implications for their workReview resources and coming events
4 (includes Speaking and Listening) Current WA Standards (GLEs) – Grades K-10 Common Core ELA Standards – Grades K-12ReadingWritingCommunication(includes Speaking and Listening)ELA Common Core StandardsSpeaking and ListeningReadingWritingLanguageMedia & TechWe will briefly review—Our current Washington State standards are divided into the three content areas: reading, writing, and communication which includes speaking and listening.The CCSS are divided into Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language for conceptual clarity (in other words, it makes sense for how the book is laid out), however the learning processes are closely intertwined throughout the document. Research and media skills and understandings are embedded throughout the Standards rather than treated in a separate section and encompass all content stands.This allows students to develop mutually reinforcing skills, reading skills that support writing, language skills that support speaking and listening, etc.Later in the presentation we will take a look at some specific examples of integrated standards.
5 The ELA Document Structure Introduction page 10K-5 page 11ReadingFoundational SkillsWritingSpeaking and ListeningLanguage6-12 page 35ReadingWritingSpeaking and ListeningLanguageLiteracy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsAppendices A, B, C
6 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for ELA College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards – Overarching standards for each of four ELA strands that are further defined by grade-specific standardsReading - 10Writing - 10Speaking and Listening - 6Language - 6Discuss the idea of anchor standards, how many there are at each grade level and how they are followed by more specific standards by grade level. All subject areas will be referenced at this time.Have participants read page 10 silentlyHave participants reread the anchor standards 1-10 highlighting the verbsParticipants will locate the verbs within the Bloom’s handoutWhat do you notice when comparing the Bloom’s document and the 10 anchor standards. Highlight the same verbs on document.Briefly what do you notice.Facilitator -The verbs are high on the taxonomy, which indicates a high level of thinking reflected in the standards.Discuss how this document was designed backward. Point out that students need to attain the standard at each grade level in order to be ready for the next, and that each of the grade-levels is linked to the one above and below it through an upward progression of critical thinking skills, knowledge depth, and more refined content.Hand out the vertical alignments & ask participants to trace a standard of their choosing with a partner.
7 What is Vertical Articulation Vertical alignment asks:How are the content standards/objectives related from one year/grade to the next?Knowledge or skills extend to a wider range of contentDeeper understanding of the (cognitive process) for same contentNew content or skills
8 Example of Grade-Level Progression in Reading CCSS Reading Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.A brief illustration of vertical alignment as well as the similarities between literature and informational text standards.
9 Quality of Content Alignment Content standards are clearly articulated across grades if:Related standards are clearly differentiated.What new knowledge or skill is required?Differences in terminology are explained.One or both standards may not be described in sufficient detail.TerminologyDifferent words for the same skill?The meaning of terms appears to be expanded.
10 Bloom’s TaxonomyLabels the type of thinking (verbs) needed to complete a task; tracing the verbs reveals a deepening of the cognitive processes through a standard from K-12.
11 Task Predicts Performance This is important because…Task Predicts PerformanceTEACHERSTUDENTCONTENTTASKElevate the cognitive demand of the task, and you elevate the performance.
12 Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Taxonomy of cognitive objectives1950s- developed by Benjamin BloomMeans of qualitatively expressing different kinds of thinkingAdapted for classroom use as a planning tool and continues to be one of the most universally applied modelsProvides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomy, and as a result, a number of changes were made(Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, pp. 7-8)A brief review of Bloom’s Taxonomy
13 A Comparison Original Revised Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension KnowledgeCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering(Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)
14 Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels Cognitive processVerbs Associated with Level/Process1. Remembering:Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memorychoose, define describe, find, identify, label, list, locate, match, name, recall, recite, recognize, record, relate, retrieve, say, select, show, sort, tell2. Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.categorize, clarify, classify, compare, conclude, construct, contrast, demonstrate, distinguish, explain, illustrate, interpret, match, paraphrase, predict, represent, reorganize, summarize, translate, understand3. Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing.apply, carry out, construct, develop, display, execute, illustrate, implement, model, solve, use4. Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing.analyze, ascertain, attribute, connect, deconstruct, determine, differentiate, discriminate, dissect, distinguish, divide, examine, experiment, focus, infer, inspect, integrate, investigate, organize, outline, reduce, solve (a problem), test for5. Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing.appraise, assess, award, check, conclude, convince, coordinate, criticize, critique, defend, detect, discriminate, evaluate, judge, justify, monitor, prioritize, rank, recommend, support, test, value6. Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing.adapt, build, compose, construct, create, design, develop, elaborate, extend, formulate, generate, hypothesize, invent, make, modify, plan, produce, originate, refine, transformBloom’s Taxonomy LevelsWorks CitedAnderson, L. W., et. al. (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.Bloom, B.S., et al. (1956). The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook I, cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay.
15 Back-mapping the ELA CCSS Starting with college and career readinessStandards for each grade level are identifiedWorking backward from grade to 9-10 to 8 etc.Establishes a clear, aligned K-12 pathway, linking elementary, middle, high school, and end-of-high school college and career readinessThe high level of cognitive demand, helps to determine the level of cognitive demand at each grade level. (If it looks like this in 12th grade, what would it look like in 11th grade if a student is on track to reach standard?) Since Bloom’s labels the type of thinking (verbs) needed to complete a task, tracing the content additions and the verbs reveals a deepening of the cognitive processes through a standard from K-12.Talk about the reverse order or the back mapping.Ask participants to follow as you model, using Standard 1 in the packet.Trace the vertical articulation in a given standard from Kindergarten through Grade 12, showing how each builds upon the next, highlighting the additions.Explain that this activity provides a foundation for further work in cognitive complexity and depth of knowledge and that it will inform instruction, lesson/unit design and assessment.Ask participants to choose a standard from the packet, and work with a partner to trace the additions from Kindergarten to the CCR.
16 Analyzing the Standards Handout the packet titled Reading Standards for informational text.Model highlighting additions
17 Your turn… With a partner, choose a standard Highlight the additions of the grade level standard as it progresses from Kindergarten toward College and Career Ready Anchor Standards (CCRS)
18 When you have finished: Using the standard you have highlighted.Underline the key conceptsimportant nouns or noun phrasesCircle the verbs describing skills required of studentsAsk participants to perform this task using the standard they have already highlighted.
19 Summary Statement Example: Anchor standard 1 is about argumentative writing and the components needed in a logical argument.It emphasizes:Writing sound argumentsSufficient supporting evidenceValid reasoningThe need to read criticallyAnalysis of substantive topics/textHave participants highlight in groups and present their summary to the other groups. Allow time for reflection and discussions.
20 Cognitive Rigor Matrix by Karin Hess Combines Bloom’s Taxonomy with Webb’s Depth of Knowledge framework.A tool for:Designing units of study that have a range of cognitive demand.Assessing tasks for the thinking they require of a student
21 The Cognitive Rigor Matrix Depth + thinkingLevel 1Recall & ReproductionLevel 2Skills & ConceptsLevel 3Strategic Thinking/ ReasoningLevel 4Extended ThinkingRemember- Recall, locate basic facts, details, eventsUnderstand- Select appropriate words to use when intended meaning is clearly evident- Specify, explain relationships- summarize– identify main ideas- Explain, generalize, or connect ideas using supporting evidence (quote, example…)- Explain how concepts or ideas specifically relate to other content domains or conceptsApply- Use language structure (pre/suffix) or word relationships (synonym/antonym) to determine meaning– Use context to identify meaning of word- Obtain and interpret information using text features- Use concepts to solve non-routine problems- Devise an approach among many alternatives to research a novel problemAnalyze- Identify whether information is contained in a graph, table, etc.– Compare literary elements, terms, facts, events– analyze format, organization, & text structures- Analyze or interpret author’s craft (literary devices, viewpoint, or potential bias) to critique a text– Analyze multiple sources- Analyze complex/abstract themesEvaluate– Cite evidence and develop a logical argument for conjectures- Evaluate relevancy, accuracy, & completeness of informationCreate- Brainstorm ideas about a topic- Generate conjectures based on observations or prior knowledge- Synthesize information within one source or text- Synthesize information across multiple sources or textsPage 5 of article – examples in article cross different content areas
22 Nature Of Content Alignment Applying Webb’s Alignment Constructs 1. Categorical Concurrence What content is new? What content is continued? 2. Range of Content Broadening or generalizing knowledge/skills 3. Depth of Knowledge (DOK) Webb DOK ratings are somewhat grade-specific 4. Balance of Representation How does content emphasis vary across grades? 5. Source of Challenge What needs to be clarified about the standards?
23 ImplicationsWhat kinds of statements can you make regarding the vertical articulation of the standard you analyzed?Use the cognitive rigor matrix to assist you.What are the similarities and differences in your current expectations for students with those of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)?
24 What instructional shifts do you see? As a result of your work today, what specific impact will the Common Core State Standards have on your lesson planning, assessment and teaching practices? In what ways will you shift your instruction as an individual, grade level, department, building or district.
26 Standard to Practice Deconstructed Identified the verbs Highlighted words/phrasesdefined or interpretedExamined the vertical alignment and identified the contextExamined the horizontal alignment and identified the contextDetermined whether one item/activity can address the entire standardDescribed something in your curriculum that aligned to the standard
27 Next steps? Optional Activity: Analyzing the standard to the level of instruction and Depth of Knowledge (DOK). This activity will provide an opportunity for the participant to isolate one standard at their grade level and going deeper. With the framing of “how this impacts their instruction .”
28 Standard to PracticeBegin with the Common Core State Standards, then consider what you already have and do.Determine whether you address:all or part of the standards in your curriculum,whether your practice occurs at the same grade level as the standard,and whether you currently have any data to evaluate effectiveness of instruction relative to that practice