# Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun

## Presentation on theme: "Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun"— Presentation transcript:

Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun

THINK – PAIR - SHARE What is the difference between
rotation and revolution? Think to yourself and discuss your thoughts with a partner. Give students a minute or two to work with their partner on a definition for rotation and revolution.

Let’s compare… Rotation Revolution
Ask a few groups to share their definitions and create a whole class answer. Have students record these definitions in their foldables. Label or color code rotation and revolution of the Earth and Moon on the diagram. Make sure students know that the Moon and Earth rotate and revolve counter-clockwise. You could also have 3 students stand up and model the motions of the Earth, Moon and Sun to further illustrate the movement. Revolution

Engage – Darkness at Night

Night and Day The sun appears to move across the sky but it is actually the EARTH that’s turning. The Earth ROTATES on its axis once every 24 hours causing day/night. The Moon also rotates on its axis. Review what the axis is. Discuss the tilt. Have students write the cause of day and night in their foldable on the Day and Night tab and then shade in the diagram showing night. Misconception to watch for—the line between day and night should be vertical. On pictures showing a tilted axis, students will often use the axis as the dividing line. At this point, you can use a globe and a light to show the students how half is lit and half is dark. Use the model to discuss how the length of day and night varies depending on where Earth is in it’s orbit around the sun. Show how in summer when the axis is tilted toward the sun, the poles have 24 hours of daylight and in winter when it’s tilted away, 24 hours of night. Answer: Talia

Months The moon travels around the Earth and takes less than a month to complete its orbit. The moon REVOLVES around the Earth. Have students define a month on their foldable.

Years The Earth travels around the Sun and takes days to complete its orbit. The Earth REVOLVES around the Sun. Have students define a year in their foldable. You can point out that on our calendar, a year is 365 days. Because it actually takes days for the Earth to orbit the sun, every 4 years we add a day to our calendar to “catch up”. This is called a Leap Year.

Why do we have seasons on Earth?
Think – Pair – Share Why do we have seasons on Earth? Think to yourself and discuss your thoughts with a partner. Give students a few minutes to brainstorm and then discuss as a class.

What Causes Seasons? The Earth's seasons are not caused by the differences in the distance from the Sun throughout the year (these differences are extremely small). The seasons are the result of the tilt of the Earth's axis. Since the axis is tilted, different parts of the globe are oriented (pointed) towards the Sun at different times of the year. The first point on the slide is a common misconception. You can use your globe to model the Earth’s revolution around the Sun and show how the hemisphere tilted toward the sun changes depending on Earth’s location in its orbit.

What causes seasons? Summer is warmer than winter (in each hemisphere) because the Sun's rays hit the Earth at a more direct angle and the days are much longer than the nights during the summer. During the winter, the Sun's rays hit the Earth at an extreme angle, and the days are very short. Have students add this information to the Seasons part of their foldable.

Directness of the Sun’s Rays
You can also use a flashlight shone against the wall to demonstrate this. Shine it straight and then at an angle to show the difference in how much the light spreads out. Compare that to the Sun’s energy.

Seasons Label the Seasons diagram in your foldable with the correct seasons for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Give students time to label their diagrams based on the class discussion. Go over the correct labels. Position A: N. Hemi-winter S. Hemi.-summer Position B: N.hemi-spring S. hemi-fall Position C: N. hemi-summer S. hemi-winter Position D: N. hemi-fall S. hemi-spring Remind students that even though the northern and southern hemispheres have opposite seasons, the calendars are the same. So, if it’s December here, it’s also December in the southern hemisphere. (It blows their mind that Christmas is in the summer in the Southern hemisphere.)

Solstices Solstices occur when Earth's axis is pointed directly toward our Sun. This happens twice a year during Earth's orbit. Summer Solstice— the first day of summer Occurs near June 21 in the Northern Hemisphere the north pole is tilted toward the Sun the longest day of the year Winter Solstice— the first day of winter Occurs near December 21 in the Northern Hemisphere the north pole is tilted away from the Sun the shortest day of the year When are the winter and summer solstices in the Southern Hemisphere? Have students define solstice on their foldable. They can also place the dates for the winter and summer solstice on their diagram. Discuss the answer to the question posed on the slide—summer solstice in the north is the same as the winter solstice in the south and vice versa.

Equinoxes Equinoxes are days in which Earth’s axis is not pointed toward our Sun. Every location on our Earth (except the extreme poles) experiences 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness. Vernal Equinox— the first day of spring Occurs March 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere Autumnal Equinox— the first day of fall Occurs on September 22 or 23 in the Northern Hemisphere When are the vernal and autumnal equinoxes in the Southern Hemisphere? Have students define equinox on their foldable. They can also place the dates for the vernal and autumnal equinox on their diagram. Discuss the answer to the question posed on the slide— vernal equinox in the north is the same as the autumnal in the south and vice versa.

Complete the Moon Phase probe.
Going Through a Phase Complete the Moon Phase probe. Read the thoughts of other students and explain which student you agree with on the paper provided. 5 minutes p. 183 – Uncovering Student Ideas In Science: Vol. 1 – Paige Keeley

Four Corners Around the room are the names of the students whose ideas were on the probe – “ Going Through a Phase” Move to the student you agreed with and create a poster that describes your groups thinking. As we begin to share thoughts, you will be given an opportunity to share. “Four Corners” – put each friend’s name from the probe on the wall. Students, when prompted, will move to the student they agree with. As a group, they will create a poster to describe their thinking. Each person in the group should be given 2 cents. Students will turn in their coins as they explain, defend or argue their/others posters and ideas. Any arguments should begin with “I understand what you are saying but…” This strategy allows whole group participation without one student dominating the discussion. No borrowing, lending or financing allow . After each group has presented their arguments give students an opportunity to change their minds. If a student chooses to move, they must explain why/what changed.

Sofia’s Right!!!!!!! Here’s why! Moon Phases
Look at top view when animated. Discuss the relationship of the position between the Sun, Earth and Moon.

Moon Phases The revolution of the Moon around the Earth makes the Moon appear as if it is changing shape in the sky. From Earth, we see the Moon grow from a thin crescent to a full disk or full moon and then shrink back to a thin crescent again before vanishing for a few days. Moon phases are grouped by either: waning or waxing.

New Moon - is not visible from Earth
New Moon - is not visible from Earth. The moon is between the Sun and the Earth. The dark side is facing us. Waxing Crescent - waxing means that the bright side is increasing. The right side is the bright side. First Quarter - the entire right side of the moon is illuminated. The moon looks like a half circle. As you review each Moon phase, have the students shade and label the circles on their foldable. The New Moon is the one between the Earth and Sun and the phases go in order, counterclockwise around the diagram, from there. Waxing Gibbous - gibbous means that more than one half is visible, but it is not quite full

Full Moon - the moon is full and bright. It looks like a large circle
Full Moon - the moon is full and bright. It looks like a large circle. The illuminated side is facing us. Waning Gibbous - the moon appears more than half but not quite full. Waning means that the illuminated side is decreasing. The left side is the bright side. Last Quarter - left half of the moon is illuminated. The illuminated side is decreasing. Waning Crescent - less than one half of the moon is illuminated. The amount of light continues to decrease.

How do I tell if a moon is WANING or WAXING? Complete the Venn diagram.
Students can create their venn diagram under their moon phase diagram in their foldable or just complete this whole group as a discussion piece. If you don’t wish to use the venn diagram, as a class create definitions for waxing (lighted portion of moon gets larger) and waning (lighted portion gets smaller) and add them to the foldable under the moon phase diagram.

WANING or WAXING? Complete the Venn diagram.
Whole group – add anything to the class list. In the margins, have the students give ideas on how to remember the names/appearance of a waning or waxing moon. One idea to help them remember— Put waning and waxing in alpha order and assign waning to your left hand and waxing to your right. Use your hands to make a circle around the moon. If the lighted side is in your left hand, it’s waning. If it’s in your right, it’s waxing.

Raise your hand for the teacher to check your work when you are done.
Card Sort – Moon Phases With a partner, grab a set of Moon Phases cards and match the picture, name and description of the phase. Raise your hand for the teacher to check your work when you are done. Have students match the cards at least 3 times. Give the students an opportunity to race each other/other groups, sort individually (each partner) or just to review like flash cards with their partner until the whole class is completed.

Reinforce: Label the Moon Phases
Whole group – teacher calls out a number and has the students shout out what the answer is.

Tides Tides are a change in the ocean water level, typically reaching a high and low level twice a day. Tides result from the pull of gravity on Earth’s waters by the moon, sun and Earth itself. The result of this tidal pull is a bulge in the ocean water almost inline with the position of the moon; one bulge toward the moon and one on the opposite side of the earth, away from the moon.

Tides Students can observe the water levels change as the moon goes through the phases.

Spring Tide When the Earth, Moon and Sun are in line, the combined effect of the Moon's and Sun's pull on Earth's water is at its greatest, resulting in the greatest ranges between high and low tide. This called a "spring" tide (from the water springing or rising up). Have students define spring tide and complete their diagram.

Neap Tide When the earth, moon and sun are at right angles to each other, the pull of the moon and the pull of the sun partially cancel each other out. The resulting tide, called a "neap" tide, has the smallest range between high and low tide. Have students define neap tide and complete their diagram (they need to include a 1st quarter moon, even though one is not shown above.