Hormone Regulation Hypothalamus- Regulation starts here. Located near the brain stem, it controls the pituitary. Pituitary- controls the hormone producing areas within the body by sending “communication” hormones.
Adrenaline or epinephrine produced in the Adrenal Cortex, adjacent to the kidneys derived from the amino acid tyrosine Role in body responsible for the fight or flight response characterized by goose bumps, increased heart rate/output and blood pressure. Affects rate of glucose release into the liver and release of glucose by liver into the blood.
Thyroxin; an iodine containing amino acid Produced in thyroid glands Derived from small molecule from amino acids Role in body responsible for basal metabolic rate in vertebrates: essential for regulating metabolism
Insulin; a protein of 51 amino acids Produced in Pancreas (β –cells islets of Langerhans. These are endocrine cells) Derived from protein Role in body Decreases blood glucose level; increases glucose and amino acid uptake and use by cells.
Sex Hormones: Estrogen and Testosterone Produced in testes and ovaries Derived from cholesterol Role in body Responsible for development of secondary sexual characteristics
Negative Feedback System Regulates the amount of hormone the body produces Target cells, cells which receive a particular hormone, when receiving a high level of the hormone send a signal to the pituitary Pituitary sends a communication hormone to the production cells to turn off hormone’s production.
A closer look at three hormones: Insulin Too high a glucose level Triggers the hypothalamus to release a hormone to the pituitary gland Pituitary gland releases another hormone (thyroxin) to the pancreas to initiate insulin production.
Insulin cont. The insulin produced is released into the blood Attaches to glucose and takes it to cells which need it for metabolism (cellular respiration) and carries any excess glucose to the liver and muscles, where it is either converted into glycogen or converted into fat (stored in adipose tissue).
Cortisol functions in the body CortisolCortisol is an important hormone in the body, secreted by the adrenal glands and involved in the following functions and more: Proper glucose metabolismmetabolism Regulation of blood pressure Insulin release for blood sugar maintanence A quick burst of energy for survival reasons
Cortisol Functions continued Normally, it’s present in the body at higher levels in the morning, and at its lowest at night. Although stress isn’t the only reason that cortisol is secreted into the bloodstream, it has been termed “the stress hormone” because it’s also secreted in higher levels during the body’s ‘fight or flight’ response to stress, and is responsible for several stress-related changes in the body.‘fight or flight’
Cortisol functions continued A quick burst of energy for survival reasons Heightened memory functions A burst of increased immunity Lower sensitivity to pain Helps maintain homeostasis in the body
Problems with a prolonged release of high doses of cortisol such as with Chronic Stress Impaired cognitive performance Suppressed thyroid function Blood sugar imbalances such as hyperglycemia Decreased bone density Decrease in muscle tissue Higher blood pressure Lowered immunity and inflammatory responses in the body, slowed wound healing, and other health consequences Increased abdominal fat, which is associated with a greater amount of health problems than fat deposited in other areas of the body.blood pressureimmunity
Sexual reproductive hormones These hormones are: testosterone, adrosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. They are all cholesterol derivatives. Both male and female produce all of the hormones but in differing amounts.
Testosterone and androsterone Most dominant sexual hormones in males. Produced in the testicles. Develop secondary male characteristics such as facial hair, deep voice and prominent muscle development.
Estrogen and Progesterone Most dominant sexual hormones in females. Estrogen:encourages secondary females characteristics such as breast development and wider hips, stimulates ovulation, regulates the absorption of calcium through the diet, maintains flexibility of muscles, skin, and ligaments and tendons. Progesterone: Maintains and develops the reproductive system, prepares the uterus for the embryo, maintain the endometrium lining during pregnancy. (levels are high in pregancy)
Continued. Birth control pills: contain synthetic progesterone to stop ovulation in women, and estrogen to maintain a regular menstrual cycle. The progesterone stops ovulation by inhibiting the production of LHRH hormone by the hypothalamus, and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) by the pituitary.
Derivatives of Cholesterol: estrogen (top right), testosterone (bottom right)
Abuse of Steriods Increasing the use of testosterone and other androgen hormones in order to promote muscle mass have harmful side effects> Side effects in men: impotence, small testes, problems urinating, baldness. Side effects in women: some development of male characteristics such as deepened voice, less body fat, more facial hair, reduced breasts. In both sexes: violent tempers, high blood pressure, and heart attacks. Injecting steriods is more effective than taking them orally, because the steriods can break down before reaching the receptor (target) site.
Vitamins 2 categories Water soluble and Fat soluble