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Anxiety and Mood Disorders Psychology Grade 12 Ms. Rebecca.

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1 Anxiety and Mood Disorders Psychology Grade 12 Ms. Rebecca

2 ?’s to answer at the end of the lesson: 1. Define anxiety and describe the different types of anxiety disorders. 2. Discuss the biological factors and learning factors that may contribute to anxiety disorders. 3. Describe the different types of mood disorders. 4. Discuss the biological factors and social-cognitive factors that may contribute to mood disorders.

3 Anxiety and Mood Disorders 2 of the most common categories fo psychological disorders. WARNING: DON’T DIAGNOSE YOURSELF OR OTHERS!

4 Anxiety A general state of dread or uneasiness because of vague or imagined danger. Different from fear because fear is in response to a REAL danger

5 Anxiety Anxiety disorders are one of the most common psychiatric disorders; however it is often completely missed or misdiagnosed. When identified, anxiety disorders are relatively easy to treat.

6 5 types of Anxiety Disorders 1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Constant tenseness and stress. Sometimes unexplained. Diagnosis: Must have 3 of the following symptoms that are NOT attached to a specific event: Restlessness Feeling on edge Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank Irritability Muscle tension Sleep disturbance

7 2. Panic Disorder Sudden bursts of intense, unexplained panic.

8 Panic Attack A panic attack is characterized by: “A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, in which four (or more) of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached within10 minutes”

9 Symptoms of Panic Attack 1. palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate 2. sweating 3. trembling or shaking 4. sensations of shortness of breath or smothering 5. feeling of choking 6. chest pain or discomfort 7. nausea or abdominal distress 8. feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint 9. derealization (feeling of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself) 10. fear of losing control or going crazy 11. fear of dying 12. paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations) 13. chills or hot flashes”

10 3. Phobic Disorder: fear of things 1. Simple Phobia: an unchanging irrational fear (there’s no reason for it) of an object or situation. Affects a person’s normal life.

11 A. Most common phobias Zoophobia: fear of animals Claustrophobia: fear of enclosed spaces Acrophobia: fear of heights Arachnophobia: Fear of spiders

12 B. How do people deal with phobias? Feel nervous or anxious Avoid situations that make them face their fear.

13 Phobias Social Phobia- Fear of social situations (ex: eating in public, speaking in public, dating)

14 Phobias Agoraphobia- fear of being in places or situations where escape may be difficult or impossible. (ex: shopping malls, buses, movie theatres and other crowded public places) Most people with agoraphobia have panic attacks when they can’t avoid the places they fear.

15 4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsessions: “thoughts, ideas or mental images that occur over and over again” in someone’s mind. Compulsions: repetitive ritual behaviors often involving checking or cleaning something Need to perform rituals to avoid anxiety

16 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Examples: People who are obsessed with doubts about locking the door every night before bed. He/she checks and rechecks every door and window before he/she can sleep each night. Washing hands many many times a day One woman reported to have washing her hands up to 500 times a day!

17 5. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Intense, constant feelings of anxiety that are caused by a very traumatic event. Ex: Rape, severe child abuse, car accident, natural disaster, war

18 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms - flashbacks - nightmares about the trauma - numbness of feelings - avoidance of things that remind someone of traumatic experiences - increased tension, which may lead to problems sleeping, irritability, poor concentration etc.

19 Causes of Anxiety Disorders Nature vs. Nurture

20 Biological Factors Heredity-inherit predisposition for developing anxiety disorders.

21 Brain Function Brains of people with anxiety disorders function differently! OCD: higher activity in frontal lobes (decision making) and amygdala (emotion center)

22 Evolution We fear situations that were dangerous to early humans. Ex: more people fear snakes than cars even though cars kill more people!

23 Learning Factors Conditioned or learned in childhood, especially during a traumatic event: Little Albert

24 Reinforcement Avoid fear=reduced anxiety! Problem: fear never gets reduced if you never face it.

25 Mood Disorders Mood changes = normal Mood changes that don’t really fit with a situation may have mood disorder

26 A. 2 Categories of Mood Disorder: 1. Depression 2. Bipolar disorder

27 1. Depression Very common. Estimated that 8-18 % of world populations will have depression in their lifetime.

28 Major Depression symptoms Diagnosed when a person has at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms for at least 2 weeks ALMOST every day! -Constant depressed mood for most of the day -Loss of interest in all, or almost all activities --significant weight loss or gain due to changes in appetite -Sleeping more or less than usual -Speeding up or slowing down of physical and emotional reactions -Loss of energy, constantly tired -Feelings of being worthless or guilty for no reason -Inability to concentrate or make decisions -Thoughts of death or suicide

29 These symptoms… Must impair functioning or produce distress. May have no apparent trigger

30 Bipolar Disorder People with this disorder had dramatic ups and downs in their mood. Extreme happiness and exciting behavior can change to extreme sadness and depression for no clear reason

31 Bipolar Disorder Symptoms also may include: - inflated self-esteem - inability to sit still or sleep - pressure to keep talking and switching from topic to topic Racing thoughts Difficulty concentrating

32 Famous people who had bipolar disorder Mark Twain and Vincent Van Gogh!

33 Serious problems associated Suicide

34 Causes of Mood Disorders Biology AND Environment

35 Biology Heredity and altered brain function

36 Social Cognitive Factors The way we think, the situations we are in, and the way we feel can all actually affect brain chemistry!

37 More Social Cognitive Explanations Learned Helplessness: can happen when people experience unpleasant events out of their control. They give up trying because they have learned that it will not help.

38 Attributions Trying to explain things when they go wrong. People with Depression are more likely to make the following attributions:

39 Stable: A bad situation will last a LONG time.

40 Internal This happened because of MY actions.

41 Global This applies to many areas of my life.

42 Example: Someone gets dumped…..

43 Vicious Cycle Combining biological and social cognitive factors, people can get into a vicious cycle of depression.

44 ?’s to answer at the end of the lesson: 1. Define anxiety and describe the different types of anxiety disorders. 2. Discuss the biological factors and learning factors that may contribute to anxiety disorders. 3. Describe the different types of mood disorders. 4. Discuss the biological factors and social-cognitive factors that may contribute to mood disorders.

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