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Advanced Interpretation. Week One(1)  Basic knowledge of Interpretation.

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1 Advanced Interpretation

2 Week One(1)  Basic knowledge of Interpretation

3 Objectives After this training, you should  have the general knowledge of interpretation  know the general requirements for an interpreter  know why and how to learn interpretation  Know some of the memorizing skills for interpreting.

4  It is defined as "oral translation of a written text" (Shuttleworth & Cowie: 1997:83).  Interpreting is a service activity with a communication function. (Gile) It is usually a face-to-face communicative act. Interpretation: definition

5  The difference in the medium  The difference in the time limit  The key skill of a very good translator is the ability to write well , professional translators almost always work in only one direction, translating only into their native language,using a good library of dictionaries and reference materials,  An interpreter, has to be able to translate in both directions, without the use of any dictionaries on the spot. Differences between interpretation and translation

6 History of Interpretation  Interpretation dates back to the old times when the need for cross-border exchanges made its presence felt by different races of people who, as society moved forward, found their secluded way of life a far cry from further economic and cultural development. Bilingual interpretation and multilingual interpretation, as a result, began to take shape in the service of all races craving for knowledge of lifestyles other than their own. A faithful account of the enlightenment of human beings, interpretation has been witnessing, since its formation, a wide range of cross-border activities such as the tours made by early travelers around the world, the spread of religious beliefs among different races, the exchanges between eastern and western civilizations and the establishment of various international organizations, etc. It was in the 1400s that Pierre Dubois, a French jurist proposed the founding of professional schools to offer systematic interpretation training, the first time it was held both as a skill and a science. The idea was justifiably followed by endless effort for that purpose, all of which went in due time to the maturity of interpretation.

7  In 1919, shortly after the World War I, some bilingual learners were appointed by the organizing committee of “Paris Peace Conference” to interpret consecutively for the post-war negotiations, signaling the rise of interpretation as a profession with a seal of approval from the United Nations. After their debut in the public, some participated interpreters made a reality the founding of a training institute for interpretation, the first of its kind that offered professional skills of interpretation as an independent discipline. Their effort did reap the reward. In the wake of World War II, the trial of POW in Nuremberg saw a breakthrough in the development of interpretation which almost incredibly climbed to a simultaneous phase, a phase that greatly streamlined the heavy load of trial procedures and thus exercised a consequent seminal influence on the evolution of interpretation.

8  Now the world has brought interpretation to the place to which it has an inalienable claim. In fact, much attention has been paid to the study of interpretation and to the cultivation of qualified interpreters as evidenced by the introduction of interpretation to higher education curriculums and the establishment of interpretation associations of all sizes. The oral work of inter-lingual transference has gradually blossomed into a top-notch profession favored by language learners and proficient interpreters are sought-after by enterprises, governments and international organizations. Toward the upsurge we shouldn’t be unduly surprised since it is, indeed, as it should be.

9 Types of interpreting  by mode:  alternating interpretation( 交替口译 )  consecutive interpretation( 接续口译 )  simultaneous interpretation( 同声传译 )  whispering interpretation( 耳语口译 )  sight interpretation( 视阅口译 )

10 Alternating interpretation:  In alternating interpretation, the interpreter offers interpretation in turns for speakers of different languages. This happens often in conference talks and business talks where there is only one interpreter who offers interpretation for both parties involved.

11 Consecutive interpretation:  Consecutive interpretation is also impromptu interpretation or step by step interpretation. This kind of interpretation is usually done by meaning groups, for example, sentence by sentence, or paragraph by paragraph. It is often used in speeches, lectures, high-level conferences, press conferences, etc.

12 Simultaneous interpretation:  SI is the most efficient form of interpretation in which the interpreter interprets a speaker’s words (SL) into his audience’s language (TL) at almost the same speed of the speaker.

13 Whispering:  Simultaneous interpreter whispers his interpretation to his service objects, usu. One to three persons.

14 Sight interpreting :  When, in interpretation, the source language is received in written form while the target language conveyed in oral form, we call it sight interpretation. Basically similar to simultaneous interpretation, sight interpretation is applied on great occasions when a pre-prepared speech script is provided.

15  By content:  guide interpretation( 导游口译 )  ceremony interpretation( 礼仪口译 )  information interpretation( 宣传口译 )  conference interpretation( 会议口译 )  negotiation interpretation( 谈判口译 )

16 Style in Interpretation  Casual:  Q: Dear Michael, who taught you how to play golf and do you still use a coach?  A: A lot of people helped teach me — mostly my buddies at the UNC while I was in school. I occasionally use a PRO to advise me on improving --but no one regular. I've come to realize that I'm just a "hack"--so now I am enjoying just playing without a lot of coaching.

17  问 : 亲爱的迈克尔, 谁教你打高尔夫球, 你现在 还有教练吗 ?  答:有许多人教过我 — 多数是我在北卡罗来 纳大学时的老同学. 偶尔会请个职业教练帮帮 我, 但不经常. 我已经渐渐认识到我不过是随便 玩玩而已. 所以现在更不想要教练, 就自己玩.

18  Formal:  Q: Women in the United States generally live longer than men. But in recent years that gap has been narrowing a bit. How has that affected the life insurance business?  A: It is not narrowing that much, thank goodness We are still outliving men, we are still. We have quite a gap on them, still about 7-8 years. The only reason it ’ s narrowing is women are doing things to themselves that they shouldn ’ t be doing, like smoking,and all those bad habits that men have had for many years. But it is not narrowing for other reasons.

19  问 : 在美国, 一般来说妇女比男人更长寿, 但是近年来 差距在缩小. 这对人寿保险业有什么影响 ?  答 : 感谢上帝, 差距并没有缩小多少。我们还是比男 人寿命长。我们和他们的寿命有很大差距, 大约仍有 七、八年的差距。差距缩小的唯一原因是妇女们做 那些不该做的事情,如吸烟以及男人们很久以来就 有的一些坏习惯。除此以外没有别的原因。

20  Official:  I wish to thank you , Mr. Premier, for accepting my invitation to share your evening with my colleagues and me, and for honoring Canada with your presence. These have been very pleasant days in Peking, and I ’ m happy that this phase of my visit should conclude in such a congenial atmosphere.

21  总理先生,感谢您今晚应邀来同我和我的同 事们欢聚一堂。您的光临使加拿大感到荣幸。 在北京的这些日子是令人愉快的,而且使我 感到高兴的是,我访问途径的这一站能够在 如此意气相投的气氛中结束。

22 Prerequisites for a good interpreter:  Bilingual Excellence  Broad Knowledge  Quick Response & Good Memory  Sense of Responsibility

23 Interpreter’s knowledge structure  KI=KL+EK+S(P+AP)  KI=Knowledge Required for an Interpreter  KL=Knowledge for language  EK=Encyclopedic Knowledge  S ( P+AP ) = Professional Interpreting Skills and Artistic Presentation Skills

24 Criteria for Interpretation  accuracy,  smoothness  fluency.

25 Process of Interpretation input → decoding → memorizing → encoding → output

26 Linguistic Theory of Interpretation Danica Seleskovitch (达尼卡. 塞莱丝柯维奇) : “ The approach (to interpretation) also focuses on the mental and cognitive processes involved in interpreting, which is seen as comprising the three stages of interpretation (理解), de-verbalization (脱离 源语外壳) and reformulation (重新表达) ” ( Seleskovitch,1977 )。

27 Points manners that call for attention  Public speaking means one must be clearly audible, and an important skill for interpreters is voice projection. Here are some tips -- the “dos” and “don’ts” of voice projection. Follow the advice and practice both inside and outside class:  -- do speak with a clear, firm voice, the first few sentences are especially important to convey assurance to your audience;  -- be clearly intelligible at all times; pronounce proper names and titles especially carefully;  -- don’t “orate”, but do sound natural and sincere;  -- use the first person singular;

28  -- talk to your audience “personally” and keep contact with them at all times;  -- watch the reaction of the audience to what you say;  -- be friendly toward your audience, be interested in your subject;  -- don’t frown;  -- don’t grimace, even if you make mistakes;  -- allow space for applause, laughter, or interruptions.

29  Eye contact  -- In order to make the audience understand better, the interpreter needs to talk to them naturally and “personally”, keep eye contact with them and watch their response all the time. A good interpreter never buries himself in reading his speech or looking at his notes. He talks to his audience like an ordinary speaker and just glances at his notes occasionally.  Posture  -- Whether you are seated or standing before the microphone, don’t sway your body from one side to another.  --Refrain from using too many gestures or getting too emotional as some speakers do. Otherwise, you will draw too much attention from the audience and may look ridiculous.

30 How to train your interpreting ability  1. much practice  2. improve your listening  3. improve your memory  4. learn some effective skills and use them in your practice  5. broaden the scope of your knowledge  6. always enlarge your vocabulary

31 Listening Training Attention: Listen to the material carefully once, try to memorize the content with your mind aided by necessary note-taking, then repeat what you remember. You should focus on the information you have got not the words, and you may change the manner of expression when repeating

32  Preparation:  e-health, electronic health services.  the Democratic Republic of Congo.  de Sante Familiale  Vodacom company  Population Services  the D.R.C.  Jamaica Corker  Pakistan.  cell phone-based technologies  AIDS helpline  H.I.V

33  This is the VOA Special English Development Report.  Sending and receiving money by text message. Sharing crop prices. Just talking to a loved one far from home. These are some of the ways that mobile phones have changed lives in developing countries. Another way is through e-health, electronic health services.  One example is a telephone hotline in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Callers can receive information about family planning and the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. They are able to speak privately with trained operators about contraceptive methods and about health clinics.  The nonprofit group Population Services International and its partner Association de Sante Familiale launched the service in two thousand five. The United States Agency for International Development finances the program. And an agreement with the Vodacom company makes the service free to callers.  We talked with Jamaica Corker, on her cell phone, at the Population Services International office in the D.R.C.  JAMAICA CORKER: "The hotline has given us an opportunity to take advantage of cell phone technology, to reach people outside of our intervention zone with family planning messaging. In a country the size of western Europe, we can't be everywhere at the same time, and the hotline allows them to call in no matter where they are and to ask us the information that we can provide -- even if we're not necessarily able to provide the services directly."  Jamaica Corker says more than twenty thousand people called the hotline in two thousand eight, the latest year available. More than eighty percent were men. She says this is mainly because men own most of the phones.  The group also has family planning hotlines in Benin and Pakistan. And it is launching a mobile phone program to gather records on condom sales around Tanzania.  The journal Health Affairs recently published an issue on "E-Health in the Developing World." Editor Susan Dentzer says e-health is improving lives in different ways.  SUSAN DENTZER: "For example in Rwanda, where cell phone-based technologies are being used to keep track of dispensation of drugs to patients with H.I.V. And Rwanda is actually at the leading edge of developing nations in tapping these technologies to advance health and health care."  In South Africa, a campaign of text messages about H.I.V. led to a large increase in calls to the national AIDS helpline. And a program in Peru sends text messages to patients with H.I.V., reminding them to take their medicines.  And that's the VOA Special English Development Report, written by June Simms. Tell us about e-health services where you are. You can share ideas and find our programs at and on Facebook at VOA Learning English. That's also our address on Twitter, YouTube and iTunes. I'm Steve Ember.

34 assignment  1. Listen to VOA (standard) for not less than 30 minutes, and try your repetition.  2. Find one or two partners to practice interpreting for not less than 30 minutes. Reserve the material you use for the next in- class interpreting activities.

35 Week one(2)  I. Objectives  You should be able to repeat two English sentences or three Chinese sentences at a time after training.

36 Skill for interpretation 1  Memory in Interpreting1:  (1) Memorizing by image: turn information into images that represent concrete situations to reduce the burden of memory.  (2) Memorizing by outline: Load information into a framework—structure it. Focus on the points and their relationship.  (3) Memorizing by inference: Group the information received by make the different groups of information into a hierarchical structure and infer what comes next accordingly.

37  Preparation:  Two-year colleges,  community colleges,  higher education system.  four-year college or university  American embassy  international students  Foreign Student

38  This is the VOA Special English Education Report.  For ten months, we have talking about coming to study in the United States. This week, we complete that series and repeat some of the advice.  Decide what kind of school interests you: Big or small, city or rural, public or private, two-year or four- year?  Two-year colleges, also known as community colleges, have not always gotten a lot of respect. Yet they are the largest part of the American higher education system. They often serve older and part- time students and those needing special help. But other students begin at a community college to save money, then finish at a four-year college or university.  On Tuesday, President Obama announced a plan to invest twelve billion dollars in community colleges over the next ten years. The goal is to help an additional five million students earn degrees or certificates. The president said jobs requiring at least an associate degree are expected to grow twice as fast in the coming years as jobs requiring no college experience.  To help with your college search, try to attend education fairs and visit an Education USA Advising Center. You can find the nearest one at education Also visit school Web sites and sites where students share their experiences, like College ClickTV and  Apply to at least three schools. Make sure they are accredited. To do that, go to -- c-h-e-a dot o-r-g.  As soon as you are accepted, make an appointment for a visa interview at an American embassy or consulate. The State Department says it is working to reduce visa delays that have affected foreign science students and researchers over the past year.  Financial aid can be limited for international students. To reduce costs, you might look into online classes or a foreign campus of an American school.  During our Foreign Student Series we also talked about student life in the United States and programs to help international students. For example, writing centers can help teach the rules of American academic writing.  All the reports in our series -- including programs on admissions tests -- can be found at Thanks to everyone who sent us questions. If you have a question, we might answer it in a future program. Click on Contact Us or write to Be sure to include your name and Be sure to include your name and country.

39 Week Two(1)  I. Objectives  After training:  You should be able to repeat more than four English or Chinese sentences at a time.  You should be able to repeat two sentences in the target language  You should learn to memorize what they hear by direct their attention to the logic of the material.

40 Interpreting Basics  Memory in interpreting 2:  Inputting information (focus on the idea: purpose of communication; topic, discourse structure)  Storing (keeping) information (keep in memory with aid of notes)  Output information (get started with the help of triggers)

41  preparation:  grapevines.  The Featherstone Winery  southern Ontario.  Pruning  David Johnson  vineyard  New Zealand.  organic pesticides

42  This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.  Growers around the world are using new methods to grow grapes to make wine. These include natural and organic methods to control harmful insects and weeds instead of using chemicals. Now, a winery in Canada has imported a natural way to control its grapevines.  The Featherstone Winery is in southern Ontario. It has eight hectares of perfect rows of grapevines. The vines, like other plants, need to be pruned every year.  In general, dead or living parts of plants need to be removed to improve the shape or growth of the plant. Pruning grapevines must be done very carefully. Only a targeted area of leaves is removed from the lower part of the vines to help the grapes grow better.  But at the Featherstone Winery, no man or machine does the pruning. Instead, the job is done by forty cute, little wooly lambs.  (SOUND)  David Johnson owns the vineyard. He says he learned about using lambs while visiting wineries in New Zealand.  Mister Johnson says the young lambs are perfectly designed to do the job. They eat the grape leaves on the lower parts of the vine. But they are not tall enough to reach the grapes.  They only weigh about twenty-two kilos, so they do not beat down the soil. And their waste makes good organic fertilizer. In addition, using the lambs costs much less than hiring workers to prune the vines for seven weeks in the summer.  And when the pruning is done in August, the lambs -- well, you might not want to know this part. They become lamb chops. Tasty ones, says David Johnson.  He says he had a difficult time finding enough lambs to do the job. There are about fifty million lambs in New Zealand. But there are not nearly as many in Ontario. Also, even some organic pesticides are harmful to lambs. And the lambs must be supervised so they do not prune too much.  David Johnson says the lambs carry out his environmental ideas about farming. He says the lambs are lovely and peaceful and he likes having them in his vineyard. People visiting the vineyard also enjoy watching the lambs do their job.

43 Week Two(2)  Objectives:  After training:  1. You should be able to simultaneously repeat two sentences in the target language.  2. You should learn to memorize what you hear by first analysing and generalizing what you hear.

44  Memory in Interpreting(3)  Memorizing by summarizing  Find out the general topic and the sub-topics and even sub-sub-topics. And arrange sort out the information in different strata of topics. See the paradigm:

45 Topic Sub-topic

46  Sentence memorizing:  1. fact: focus on “what”.  2. event: focus on “who, what, when”.  3. abstract statement: focus on “logic”.

47 Preparation  Getting Clunkers and Distracted Drivers Off the Road  Transportation Secretary 交通局长 ( 部长)  Ray LaHood 雷 · 拉胡德  text-messaging  Car Allowance Rebate System 汽车津贴与 折扣制度  Clunkers 年久失修的旧机器

48  scrap metal 废铁片(金属片)  bailout 救援行动  Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid 参议 院多数党领导人 哈里 · 雷德  Mos Def 默斯 · 戴福  John Wilkes Booth 约翰 ·W· 布思  Brooks Brothers 布鲁克斯兄弟公司

49  This week in Washington, Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood announced plans for a "distracted driving summit" in September.  Transportation and law enforcement officials, safety activists and others will discuss how to deal with drivers who do other things as they drive. Talking on the phone has long been an issue. But text- messaging while driving has gained more attention recently following a number of deadly crashes.  Right now, though, distracted driving is not the only thing Secretary LaHood has to think about.  For the first time in many months, large numbers of Americans have been buying new cars. And here is at least part of the reason why: Since late July the government has been paying for people to trade in older vehicles for newer ones with greater fuel economy. The program is named the Car Allowance Rebate System, but known as "cash for clunkers."  It was included as part of an unrelated defense bill passed in June. Congress provided one billion dollars for car dealers to pay for trade- ins. Qualified buyers can receive up to four thousand five hundred dollars toward a new vehicle. So far, most of the trade-ins have been trucks and the majority of new purchases have been cars.

50  Dealers are required to make the trade-ins unusable by destroying the engine, then recycle the old vehicles into scrap metal.  The billion dollars was supposed to last until November. But the program has been so popular, officials say most of the money is already gone. President Obama asked Congress for an additional two billion dollars which could last through Labor Day, September seventh.  Last week the House of Representatives agreed. And on Wednesday, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid announced a deal between Democrats and Republicans to clear the way for final approval.  But "cash for clunkers" has its critics. Liberals say the fuel-efficiency requirements for the replacement vehicles are not strong enough for the environment. Conservatives object to the cost, and the idea of what they say is just another bailout for the car industry.  The Transportation Department reported Wednesday that almost half of all sales were from American manufacturers. However, foreign automakers had six of the ten top selling vehicles in the program. But even so, most of their vehicles were built in the United States.

51 Week Three(1)  Objectives:  After training:  1. You should be able to simultaneously repeat a paragraph in the target language  2. Learn the basic knowledge of note-taking.  2. memorize what you hear by first analysing and summarizing what you hear.

52 Note taking(1)  While it is essential for an interpreter to be able to use his/her short-term memory, it is highly important for him/her to be able to use notes to help remembering, especially when the input is longer than what the short-term memory can manage. For an interpreter, it cannot be stressed more that taking notes is only a means to supplement or enhance memory or to remind him/her of the received information. The act of taking notes should not take up too much of attention or effort.  Notes are highly individualized, created by each individual interpreter for personal use. For example, some interpreters think that the target language should be used in notes, that is to say, English for C-E interpreting and Chinese for E-C rendering, some find it more convenient to use the source language and still some prefer to use the combination of the two. However some principles prove helpful to most interpreters. First of all, a logical analysis of the speech is indispensable, through which the organization of the speech is highlighted and the key sense groups are distinguished from relatively insignificant information.

53  The difference between interpreting note- taking and sketch note-taking  The principal principle of interpreting note- taking.  General requirements for and characteristics of note-taking

54 Examples:  E.g. 1. What I really want to do is lay out three things. First, I’d like to explain what the administration’s China policy is. As you will see in a few moments, it is not necessarily as self-apparent as you might think. Then I’d like to give my interpretation of what happened at the last summit, and then I’d like to give some remarks about what I think will happen at the next summit. So let me start on that rather ambitious agenda and see if we can do all of it in 20 to 30 minutes.  One example of a note for the passage can be as follows:  lay out: 3  解:对华政  not 显 ≠think  last sum.  next  amb., 20-30 分

55  E.g. 2. The GATT system has been the catalyst for the greatest expansion of global trade and economic growth in the history of mankind. Tariffs have fallen from an average of 40 percent in 1948 to today’s average of less than 4 percent. Global trade has increased 16-fold, helping to lead to a 400 percent increase in real world output. Rich countries has gotten richer; but so have the less developed ones. That is the reason why today the WTO has 132 members, with 32 more countries interested in joining.  GATT = 催: g 贸  经 ↑est in 人历  关 平 40% 1940 ↓  4% 今  g 贸 ↑16 倍  → 产出  rich ↑  不发 ↑  So: 132 mem,  32 兴

56  Preparation:  Amazon  hardcover books  iPhone  Kindle  e-books  George Orwell  Barnes & Noble  copyright.  The Justice Department  European Commission

57  This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.  The book industry is trying to get a good read on its future.  These days, instead of turning paper pages, many readers reach for handheld devices. These electronic readers not only store books to show on a screen, they can also read them out loud. This month, Amazon lowered the price of its Kindle reader by sixty dollars to just under three hundred dollars. The device can download books wirelessly from a store on Amazon's Web site. Most new releases and bestsellers cost nine dollars and ninety- nine cents. Newspapers, magazines and other services are available for a monthly charge.  Buyers of e-books get a good deal: Traditional hardcover books often cost around twenty-five dollars. But what about book publishers and writers? Their concerns about profits that are like the ones voiced as the Internet began to change the music industry. Many e-books are already selling for ninety-nine cents.

58  Books printed on paper are easily shared and resold by anyone. But e-books can act more like computer software licensed only to the user who buys them.  And some Kindle users got a shock last week. They were surprised to find that copies of two books disappeared from their devices. These were ninety-nine cent versions of George Orwell's "1984" and "Animal Farm."  Bloggers have had fun pointing out that "1984" is largely about censorship -- the suppression of information in a society led by Big Brother. Amazon explained that it did not have the rights to the books, so it erased them and returned the people's money.

59  This week, Barnes & Noble, the world's largest bookseller, launched what it calls the world's largest e-bookstore. People can read the books on the Apple iphone and other handheld devices and personal computers. They can also download over half a million books available free from Google. The Internet search company is putting books online that are no longer protected by copyright.  But last October, Google reached a one hundred twenty-five million dollar legal settlement to also make parts of some copyrighted books available. That deal with two groups of writers and publishers has raised competition issues. The Justice Department is now investigating. Also, the European Union plans hearings in September on how European writers might be affected.  And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. Transcripts and podcasts of our reports can be found at I'm Steve Ember.

60 Week Three(2)  Objectives:  You will trained to better memorize and interpret figures properly.

61 Note-taking(2)  $  =  /  ><  +  ^  //  U

62  Aids:  Command module 指令舱  Lunar module 登月舱  Service module 服务舱  Samoa 萨摩亚群岛 [ 南太平洋 ]  mission control 地面控制站

63  move 步骤  leak 泄露  oxygen tank 氧气桶  Navy captain James Lovell  John Swigert  Fred Haise

64  I'm Barbara Klein.  VOICE TWO:  And I'm Steve Ember with EXPLORATIONS in VOA Special English. Today we continue the history of the American space program with the flight of Apollo Thirteen, the flight that almost did not return home.  (MUSIC)  VOICE ONE:  American astronauts in Apollo Eleven landed on the moon July twentieth, nineteen sixty-nine. A second landing was made four months later. Both flights were almost perfect. Everything worked as planned. Everyone expected the third moon-landing flight, Apollo Thirteen, would go as well as the first two. But it did not.  Apollo Thirteen roared into space on Thursday, April eleventh, nineteen seventy. The time was thirteen-thirteen, one-thirteen p. m. local time. Navy captain James Lovell was commander of Apollo Thirteen. He had flown on Apollo Eight, the first flight to orbit the moon. The two other crew members were civilians -- John Swigert and Fred Haise. Apollo Thirteen was their first space flight.

65  VOICE TWO:  The Apollo Thirteen spacecraft was like the earlier Apollos. It had three major parts. One was the command module. The astronauts would ride to the moon in the command module and then ride back to Earth in it. It was the only part of the spacecraft that could survive the fiery return through the Earth's atmosphere.  The lunar module was the second part. It would carry two of the astronauts to the moon's surface. It would later launch them from the moon to rejoin the command module.  The third part of the Apollo spacecraft was the service module. It had a rocket engine that the astronauts fired to begin circling the moon. They fired it again to break out of moon orbit for the return flight to Earth. The service module carried tanks of oxygen for the flight, and the fuel cells that produced electricity and water the astronauts needed to survive.  VOICE ONE:  There was what seemed to be a minor problem during the ground tests before launch. Two large tanks in the service module held liquid oxygen. The oxygen was the fuel that provided water and electricity for the command module. One of the oxygen tanks failed to empty normally during the ground test. Engineers had to boil off the remaining oxygen by turning on a heater in the tank. Commander Lovell said later he should have demanded the oxygen tank be replaced. But it seemed to be fixed. So no change was made.  (MUSIC)  VOICE TWO:  After launch, Apollo Thirteen sailed smoothly through space for two days. Controllers on the ground joked that the flight had gone so well they did not have enough to do. That changed a few hours later. The first sign of trouble was a tiny burst of light in the western sky over the United States. It looked like a far-away star had exploded.  VOICE ONE:

66  Near the space center in Houston, Texas, some amateur star-watchers were trying to see the Apollo spacecraft through telescopes. One of the group had fixed a telescope to a television set so that objects seen by the telescope appeared on the television screen. The spacecraft was too far away to be seen. But suddenly, a bright spot appeared on the television screen. Over the next ten minutes it grew into a white circle. The observers on the ground had no reason to believe the white spot they saw was made by the spacecraft. They thought it was a problem with the television. So they went home to bed.  VOICE TWO:  It was not a problem with their television. It was a serious problem with Apollo Thirteen. It happened a few minutes after the three astronauts completed a television broadcast to Earth.  The astronauts heard a loud noise. The spacecraft shook. Warning lights came on. Swigert called to mission control.

67  JOHN SWIGERT: "Houston, we've had a problem here."  The number two oxygen tank in the service module had exploded. The liquid oxygen escaped into space. It formed a huge gas ball that expanded rapidly. Sunlight made it glow. Within ten minutes, it was almost eighty kilometers across. Then it slowly disappeared. The cloud was the white spot the observers in Houston had seen on their television.  VOICE ONE:  The loss of one oxygen tank should not have been a major problem. Apollo had two oxygen tanks. So, if one failed, the other could be used. But the astronauts soon learned that the explosion had caused the other oxygen tank to leak.  The astronauts were three hundred twenty thousand kilometers from Earth with little oxygen, electricity and water. Their situation was extremely serious. No one knew if they could get the spacecraft back to Earth, or if they could survive long enough to return.  (MUSIC)

68  VOICE TWO:  The astronauts and the flight control center quickly decided that the lunar module could be their lifeboat. It carried oxygen, water, electricity and food for two men for two days on the moon's surface.  But there were three astronauts. And the trip back to Earth would take four days. The men greatly reduced their use of water, food and heat. And they turned off all the electrical devices they could.  Back on Earth, space scientists and engineers worked around the clock to design and test new ideas to help the astronauts survive.  VOICE ONE:  Getting enough good air to breathe became the most serious problem. The carbon dioxide the astronauts breathed out was poisoning the air. The lunar module had a few devices for removing carbon dioxide. But there were not enough to remove all the carbon dioxide they created.  Engineers on the ground designed a way the astronauts could connect air-cleaning devices from the command module to the air system in the lunar module. The astronauts made the connector from a plastic bag, cardboard and tape. It worked. Carbon dioxide was no longer a problem.  VOICE TWO:  Now the problem was how to get the astronauts back to Earth as quickly and safely as possible. They were more than two-thirds of the way to the moon on a flight path that would take them to a moon landing. They needed to change their flight path to take them around the moon and back toward Earth. They had to do this by firing the lunar module rocket engine for just the right amount of time. And they had to make this move without the equipment in the command module that kept the spacecraft on its flight path.  Five hours after the explosion, flight controllers advised firing the rocket for thirty-five seconds. This sent the spacecraft around the moon instead of down to it. Two hours after Apollo Thirteen went around the moon, the astronauts fired the rocket for five minutes. This speeded up the spacecraft to reach Earth nine hours sooner.  (MUSIC)  VOICE ONE:

69  The lunar module was extremely uncomfortable. The astronauts had very little to drink and eat. But the cold was the worst part of the return trip. The temperature inside the lunar module was only a few degrees above freezing. It was too cold for them to sleep much.  They used the electrical power in the lunar module to add electricity to the batteries of the command module. They would need the electrical power for their landing.  VOICE TWO:  The crew moved back to the command module a few hours before landing. They turned on the necessary equipment and broke away from the damaged service module. As the service module moved away, they saw for the first time the damage done by the exploding oxygen tank. Equipment was hanging from a huge hole in the side of the module.  One hour before landing, Lovell, Swigert and Haise said thanks and goodbye to their lifeboat, the lunar module. They separated from it and sent it flying away from them.  VOICE ONE:  Now, the command module of Apollo Thirteen headed alone toward Earth. It fell through the atmosphere. Its parachutes opened, slowing its fall toward the Pacific Ocean, near Samoa. Ships and planes were waiting in the landing area.  And millions of people around the world were watching the live television broadcast of the landing. People everywhere cheered as the cameras found the spacecraft floating downward beneath its three parachutes. They watched as it dropped softly into the water.  The Apollo Thirteen astronauts were safely home.  (MUSIC)  VOICE TWO:  Our program was written by Marilyn Rice Christiano and produced by Mario Ritter. I'm Steve Ember.

70 Week Four(1)  Learn to take notes effectively.  Learn to interpret by logic.  Learn to take down figures effectively.

71 Note-taking of figures  Figure interpreting constitutes a highly difficult problem to beginners. This is because Chinese and English have different ways of expressing numbers. In Chinese, we have a series of numerical characters to express particular figures, e.g. 十、百、千、万、百万、千万、亿、十亿 …, which are actually the multiples of “ 十 ”. But in English, there are no equivalents of “ 万 ” and “ 亿 ”. Relevant figures have to be converted on the basis of “thousand”, “million” and “billion”. As a result, interpreter trainees often feel handicapped in their desperate attempt to make the conversions.

72  Another reason is that figure, which are illogical in nature, are extremely difficult to remember. No matter how good an interpreter’s memory is, he/she cannot expect to memorize all figures, especially big ones. It is obvious that without prior training, one can hardly avoid making mistakes. Only through intensive training can we achieve proficiency in handling this problem.

73 Try to memorize:  1 万 =ten thousand  10 万 =one hundred thousand  100 万 =one million  1000 万 =ten million  1 亿 =one hundred million  10 亿 =one billion  11 亿= 1.1 billion  1 万亿= 1trillion  1 万 1 千亿= 1.1trillion

74 Expressions for figure interpretation:  达到 : reach, total, number, peak at, be…in total  占 %: account for, take up; constitute; make up  上升: rise, increase, climb, jump, skyrocket, augment, up  下降 : fall, drop, decline, decrease, precipitate, down  稳定 / 波动 : level out/off, remain stable, fluctuate, stand/stay at, to reach a peak

75  Interpreting Approximate Numbers ( 大约 )  CH: 约、大约、大概、来、左右 ……  ENG: about, around, roughly, approximately, some, more or less, in the neighborhood of, or so, or thereabout, in the rough…  Interpreting Numbers Smaller than Round Numbers ( 少于 )  CH: 少于、低于、不到、不及、不足、以下 ……  ENG: fewer than, less than, under, below, within…  Interpreting Numbers with the Meaning of “Nearly” ( 将近 )

76  CH: 近、快、将近、几乎、差不多、差一点儿、差 一点儿不到 ……  ENG: nearly, almost, toward, close on…  Interpreting Indefinite Numbers Which Mean “More Than”( 多于 )  CH: 多于、大于、高于、超过、多、以上 ……  ENG: more than, over, above, upwards of, and more, odd, and odd…  Interpreting Numbers Which Are Between Particular Numbers ( 介于 )  CH: 到、至、介于 … 之间 ……  ENG: from … to …, (anywhere) between… and …

77  Exercises  Ex. 1  590/ 2,076 / 8, 565/ 61,500/ 77,519 / 5,978,300 / 96,329,100 / 873,665,300/ 415,978,729 /78,112,030,331  5.45 万 105.08 亿 208.55 万 四亿九千二百五十万 ( 492.5m )  一百五十万零八千( one million five hundred and eight thousand; 1.508m )  六十二亿二千九百八十四万五千( six billion two hundred twenty-nine million eight hundred and forty five thousand; 6b, 229m.845 th )

78 Preparation  nitrogen: 氮  phosphorous: 磷  maize: 玉米  yield: 产量  input: 投入  nitrous oxide: 一氧化亚氮  runoff: 流走之物  algae: 藻类  microorganism: 微生物

79  This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.  Fertilizer use differs from country to country, and from too little to too much. Nitrogen and phosphorus can produce big crops. But they can also pollute water and air.  A recent policy discussion in the journal Science compared the nutrient balances of different agriculture systems. Researchers compared the use of fertilizer in three areas that grow maize as a major grain: China, Kenya and the United States.  By 2005, they say, farms in northern China produced about the same amount of corn per hectare as farms in the American Midwest. But the Chinese farmers used 6 times more nitrogen, and produced almost 23 times more surplus nitrogen.  Government policies can have an influence. For example, as China sought food security, its policies increased fertilizer use.

80  The researchers note that farmers in the Midwest used too much fertilizer on their crops through the 1970s. But improved farming methods later increased their yields and, at the same time, made better use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer.  Farms in western Kenya use just over one-tenth as much fertilizer as American farms. Corn harvests remain small. The researchers say farming methods in Sub-Saharan Africa need to improve or else poor quality soil will increase rural poverty. More than 250 million people do not get enough nutrients from crops to stay healthy.  Nutrient balances in agriculture differ with economic development. Farmers lack enough inputs to maintain soil fertility is parts of many developing countries, especially in Africa south of the Sahara. But countries that are developed or growing quickly often have unnecessary surpluses.

81  Ammonia gas released by fertilized cropland is a cause of air pollution. The land can also release nitrous oxide, a heat-trapping gas.  Nitrogen runoffs from farms can create large dead zones, like those in the Gulf of Mexico. Algae microorganisms in the water overpopulate because of the surplus nitrogen. The algae take much of the oxygen from the water. Fish and other organisms die.  Laurie Drinkwater at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, was an author of the report. Professor Drinkwater says farmers need to think about ways to solve some of the causes of nutrient loss from agriculture. She says different countries need different solutions based on location, environment, climate and population needs.  And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, written by Marisel Salazar. I'm Steve Ember.

82  Ex. 2  Models: Belgium has an area of thirty one thousand square kilometers, its population is ten million one hundred thousand and the population density is three hundred and thirty inhabitants per square kilometer.  Country AreaPopulation Population density  (inhabitants per sq km)  Belgium31,00010,100,000 330  Denmark43,0005,200,000 120  Germany357,00081,200,000 226  France544,00057,600,000 106  Spain505,00039,100,000 78  Finland337,0005,100,000 15  Italy301,00057,100,000 189  Britain244,00058,000,000 237

83  Idea gets more attention, but time saved may not mean tuition saved in earning a bachelor's degree. Transcript of radio broadcast: 23 July 2009 This is the VOA Special English Education Report.  The last time the United States Education Department asked young people how long they took to finish college was in two thousand one. Fifty-seven percent graduated with a bachelor of arts degree in four years. Thirty-nine percent took five years.  And what about the others, the remaining four percent? They did it in three years. To some people, that is a smart idea.  In February, Senator Lamar Alexander warned higher education leaders that they risk rejection unless they lower the cost of attending college. The Republican senator is a former education secretary and former president of the University of Tennessee. He suggested offering a three-year bachelor's degree that would save money as well as time.  Many students can already graduate in three years. They take bigger class loads and classes in the summer. And they have college credit from passing Advanced Placement tests in high school. A.P. credits can mean fewer required classes.  Others who want to graduate in three years must pay for the same education as four-year students, but in a shorter period of time.  Three-year graduates, though, can enter the job market sooner. That adds another year of wages to their lifetime earnings.  In two thousand five, Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana, began a program called "Degree in Three." Students take full loads of classes, including two or three summers.  Cindy Marini, assistant director of academic advising, says twenty-eight programs currently offer a bachelor's degree in three years. These include business and nursing. As of March, about fifty of the eighteen thousand students at Ball State were taking part in the Degree in Three program.  Students in the three-year program at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, take more classes each semester than the other students. But the cost for a year is the same for all, more than fifty thousand dollars.  Bryan McNulty, the communications director, says Bates has offered a three-year bachelor's degree since the nineteen sixties. But he says only one or two students usually choose it each year, and no one did in the graduating class in May.  Still, other schools are preparing their own programs. These include Hartwick College in New York State and the University of Houston-Victoria in Texas. And lawmakers in Rhode Island are considering a bill that would require state schools to offer the choice of a three-year degree.

84 Week Four(2)  Objectives:  After training:  1. You should be able to take down what they hear in a scientific way  2. You should be able to take down what they hear about who, what, when, where, why, how, as well as figures.  3. You should learn to take down what they hear by analysing and summerizing, using words and signs.

85 Training steps  1. Listening while counting from 100 to 1 repeatedly.  2. Listening while shadowing and back counting.  3. Interpreting training.

86 Preparation  tallied 计算  bar 禁止  pre-existing health conditions 既往病史  coverage 保险(金)  free coverage 免费保险  Medicaid (医疗补助制度) program for the poor 穷人医疗补助计划

87  Private policies 私营保险  insurance coverage 医保  Enshrine 把 …… 奉为神圣

88 Week Five(1)  Objectives:  You will be trained to interpret sequentially while listening the materials to improve your interpreting ability

89 Training steps  1. Listening while counting from 100 to 1 repeatedly.  2. Listening while shadowing and back counting.  3. Interpreting training.

90  Americans are considering national education  standards recently developed by teachers and  other education experts. The National  Governors Association and the Council of Chief  State School Officers led the effort.   The United States, unlike other nations, has  never had the same school standards across the  country. The reason? Education is not  discussed in the Constitution. That document  limits the responsibilities of the federal  government. Other responsibilities, like  education, fall to the individual states.   Local control of education probably was a good  idea two hundred years ago. People stayed in  the same place and schools knew what  students needed to learn. But today, people  move to different cities. And some people work  at jobs that did not exist even twenty years ago.   Many American educators say that getting a  good education should not depend on where  you live. They say that some states have  lowered their standards in order to increase  student scores on tests required by the No  Child Left Behind Act. 

91  最近,美国人正在考虑由教师和其他教育  专家拟订的国家教育标准。这项工作由全  国州长协会和各州教育长官委员会领导。   和其他国家不同,美国从未有过全国统一  的学校标准。原因是什么呢?《宪法》并  没有讨论教育问题,宪法限制联邦政府的  职责。(宪法中没有讨论的)其它职责如  教育,交由各州政府履行。   地方管理教育在两百年前可能是个好主  意。那时,人们待在同一个地方,学校知  道学生需要学什么。但在今天,人们会搬  到不同的城市,而(现在)有些人所从事  的工作,二十年前甚至都不存在。   许多美国教育家表示,获得良好的教育不  应该取决于你住在哪里。他们称,有些州  为了在《不让一个孩子掉队法案》所要求  的测试中提高学生分数,而降低其标准。

92  Kara Schlosser is communications director for the Council of Chief State School Officers. She says the new standards clearly state what a student should be able to do to be successful in  Kara Schlosser 是各州教育长官委员会的  通联总监(译注:通联总监负责内外沟通  与联络) 。她表示,新标准明确阐述了一  个学生应具备什么(素质)才能在大学和

93  college and work.   The standards deal with language and  mathematics in every grade from kindergarten  through high school. For example, in first  grade, students should be asking and  answering questions about something they  read.   In mathematics, students should be working  with shapes in kindergarten and angles in  fourth grade.   Forty-eight states have already shown approval  for the standards. Two states reject the idea.  Critics say that working toward the same  standards in every state will not guarantee  excellence for all. Some educators in  Massachusetts say adopting the proposal will  hurt their students because the state standards  are even higher. Others say the change will be  too costly, requiring new textbooks and  different kinds of training for teachers. Still  others fear federal interference or control.   Supporters say the standards are goals and do  not tell states or teachers how to teach. They  also say the federal government is not forcing  acceptance. However, approving the standards  will help states qualify for some federal grant  money.

94  工作中取得成功。   新标准涉及从幼儿园到高中每个年级的  语言和数学。例如,一年级学生应能对他  们阅读的材料提出和回答问题。   在数学方面,幼儿园学生应该能描述各种  形状(译注:如圆形、方形) ,而四年级  学生应该会测量角度。   四十八个州已表示赞成新标准。两个州表  示反对。批评人士指出,让每个州都实行  统一的标准并不能保证所有人都优秀。马  萨诸塞州的一些教育家表示,采纳这个建  议会伤害他们的学生,因为他们州的标准  甚至更高。另一些人表示,这项变革的成  本太高,不仅要用新课本,还要对教师进  行各类培训。当然,还有一些人担心联邦  政府的干涉和控制。   支持者称,新标准是总体目标,而不是告  诉各州或教师如何教学。他们还表示,联  邦政府并没有强迫他们接受。然而,赞成  新标准会有助于州政府有资格得到联邦  补助金。

95 Week Five(2)  Objectives:  You will be trained to interpret sequentially while listening the materials to improve your interpreting ability, using logic in inferring what is spoken.

96 Steps  1. Shadowing exercises: listen--back- counting—repeating with some time-lag  2. Interpreting training

97  This week, leaders of the top industrial and developing economies gathered in the eastern United States. They met in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for a summit on the world's financial future. Leaders of the Group of Twenty have now met three times in less than a year to deal with the worst recession since the nineteen thirties.  Many of their governments have used spending programs to inject five trillion dollars into their economies. These stimulus efforts have had some success. Now, the question is how and when to withdraw that support without harming a recovery, and how to avoid a repeat of the financial crisis.  The leaders agreed to make the G20 the main group for their international economic cooperation, instead of the G8. The G20 is nineteen countries and the European Union. It includes fast-growing economies in the developing world like China, India and Brazil.  Earlier this week, world leaders attended the United Nations General Assembly in New York. President Obama, in a speech on Wednesday, sought to distance himself from some of the policies of George W. Bush.

98  BARACK OBAMA: "Those who used to chastise America for acting alone in the world cannot now stand by and wait for American to solve the world's problems alone. We have sought in word and deed for a new era of engagement with the world."  On Thursday, the Security Council approved a resolution to increase efforts toward a world without nuclear weapons. All fifteen members voted for the resolution proposed by the United States.  The five permanent members are the United States, Britain, China, France and Russia. Those five plus Germany have been preparing to meet with Iranian negotiators on October first to discuss Iran's nuclear program.  On Friday, there were new demands for Iran to follow Security Council resolutions to halt nuclear enrichment. The American, British and French leaders announced that Iran has been secretly building a second enrichment center for several years.  American officials say the information was made public after Iran discovered that Western intelligence agencies knew about the facility. Iran informed the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna earlier this week.  Enriched uranium can be used as fuel for nuclear energy -- as Iran says -- or it can be used for nuclear bombs. French President Nicolas Sarkozy said, "If by December, there is not an in-depth change by the Iranian leaders, sanctions will have to be taken."  In New York, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said President Obama will regret saying that Iran has been building a secret facility. He said Iran met I.A.E.A. rules by informing the agency early enough that the facility was being built. Russia and China both urged Iran to cooperate with the U.N. nuclear agency on any investigation.

99 Week Seven(1)  Objectives:  You will be trained to interpret sequentially while listening the materials to improve your interpreting ability, trying to group sentence groups into a semantic trunk and then interpreting it.

100 Steps  1. Shadowing exercises: listen--group the words you hear into a sense group (connected sense groups) at a time--repeat with some time-lag  2. Interpreting numbers training  3. Interpreting training: topic health


102  The World Health Organization says it expects the first anti-Swine Flu vaccines to be available in September. WHO says clinical trials to test their efficacy and safety are going on in five countries.  The World Health Organizations says vaccine manufacturers are on track to develop a vaccine for the H1N1 virus, commonly known as swine flu. It says more than 400 shipments of different viruses [vaccine viruses are the starting materials that the manufacturers need to produce vaccines] have been made to all manufacturers and some of the experimental vaccines are now being used in clinical trials.  Director of WHO's Initiative for Vaccine Research, Marie-Paule Kieny, says some of the batches also are likely to be used in future vaccination campaigns. She says clinical trials of vaccine candidates are going on in China, Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany and the U.S. And, she expects more clinical trials of other vaccines will begin in other countries in the coming days.  "For the clinical trials who have started in July already, we should have early results during September, during the first half of September," Kieny said. "So, we will know after these clinical trials whether one or two doses will be needed. And, this will also give confirmation that the formulation that the vaccine manufacturers are using are indeed immunogenic and likely to give protection against the pandemic virus."  Dr. Kieny says media rumors that the quick development of vaccines makes them unsafe, in most cases, are unfounded. She says no vaccine carries zero risks. Some minor side effects are to be expected. She says occasionally someone might have a severe reaction to a vaccine. But, this only occurs in very rare cases.  "So, there is no doubt that if and when there will be very large-scale vaccination campaigns, there will be people who will have adverse events," Kieny said. "But, the large majority of those will not be associated at all with the vaccine, which is given. It will be temporarily associated, which means it is something which would have happened anyway, but, which just by chance happened after the person has had a vaccine. "  Kieny says the vaccine might cause fever, or pain, nausea, diarrhea or fainting in some people. She says national regulatory authorities will closely monitor all sickness and adverse effects to see whether these side effects are linked to the vaccine or are just coincidental.  If pharmaceutical companies operate at full capacity, she says they could produce 94 million doses of the vaccine a week. 

103  The H1N1 flu virus that has spread around the world is especially risky for pregnant women. If they become infected, especially after the first three months of pregnancy, they can get very sick or even die. Cases of fetal death have also been reported.  Pregnant women face an increased risk even during outbreaks of seasonal influenza. But the new H1N1 flu has been affecting a younger age group than seasonal flu epidemics.  The W.H.O. says pregnant women should take the antiviral drug Tamiflu as soon as possible after they show signs of illness. The drug is also called oseltamivir.  The agency says treatment should begin immediately and not wait for the results of laboratory tests. The effect are greatest when given within forty-eight hours. But experts say the medicine could still do some good even if there is a delay.  Since April, more than one thousand deaths have been reported from the H1N1 virus, commonly called swine flu. But so far the virus has not shown itself to be more severe than seasonal flu.  The World Health Organization has predicted that the H1N1 virus will infect at least two billion people in the next two years. Agency chief Margaret Chan has expressed concern there is not a good process in place to produce enough vaccine against the virus.  In the United States, there are now guidelines for the use of H1N1 vaccine when it becomes available. An advisory committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said there are five groups that should be vaccinated first.  These include pregnant women and people who live with or care for children younger than six months. They also include workers in health care and emergency services, and people between six months and twenty-four years of age.  The fifth group on the list is people twenty-five to sixty-four with chronic health problems.  If vaccine supplies are limited, then the committee says two groups of children should be vaccinated before other children. One group is those who are six months to four years old. The other is those five to eighteen with chronic medical conditions.  In April, after the first cases in the United States, officials told schools to close at the first sign of an H1N1 outbreak. The government later eased those warnings. Since then officials have been reported working on final guidelines for when schools should close.

104 Week Ten(Interpreting for tourism)  Objectives:  After training:  1. You are expected to acquire interpreting knowledge and skills for tourism industry.  2. You are expected to acquire knowledge and skills for interpreting for tourism industry through step-by-step practice.  3. You students are expected to expand their vocabulary to the area tourism.

105 Week Eleven (Interpreting for Agriculture) Objectives: After this training 1. You are expected to acquire interpreting knowledge and skills for Agriculture. 2. The students are expected to expand their vocabulary to the area of agriculture.

106  This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.  Florida, in the southeastern United States, is called the Sunshine State. It grows more oranges than anyplace except Brazil. But Arctic air has damaged some Florida oranges and strawberries in recent days, and killed fish at tropical fish farms.  The unusually long period of cold weather has shown how even warm climates can sometimes freeze over. But protecting plants and trees in the garden may not be too difficult if you follow a few suggestions.  Ice protects these oranges during an overnight freeze last week in Apopka, FloridaSudden cold can be the biggest threat, especially after a warm period. Plants have not had a chance to harden their defenses. Those that are actively growing or flowering are at high risk.  Try to choose plants that live best with cold weather, and planting areas that face west and south. Being near other growth may also provide warmth.  Most frost damage takes place at night. Ice crystals form on the leaf surface. They pull moisture from the leaves and keep plant tissues from getting water.  Cold weather is most likely to damage or kill plants that do not have enough moisture. So keep the garden watered. Moist soil absorbs more heat than loose, dry soil covered with mulch or vegetation.  University of Arizona extension experts say covering plants and small trees with cloth or paper can help prevent frost damage. A one-hundred watt light bulb designed for outdoor use can also provide warmth. Some people place Christmas lights on young trees for warmth. The bulbs should hang below the leaves to let the heat rise into the tree.  Cold is especially dangerous to citrus trees. Agricultural specialists at the University of California suggest putting paper or cloth around the trunk and central branches of young citrus trees.  In Florida, as temperatures fell to record lows, citrus growers sprayed water on their trees to help prevent freeze damage.  Jim Bottcher is a master gardener with the University of Florida extension. He explains that as the water freezes, it produces heat, and the ice forms a protective blanket around the tree. If you spray a tree, keep the water away from nearby power lines. Heavy ice can form and break them.  You can also wrap a tree in palm tree frond leaves, cornstalks or fiberglass. Adding plastic film works well in rain and snow. But experts say plastic alone does not help much.  And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. More gardening and agricultural advice is at I'm Bob Doughty.

107 Week Twelve(Interpreting for Trade)  Objective:  After training:  1. You are expected to acquire interpreting knowledge and skills for trade. 2. You are expected to expand their vocabulary to the area of trade.

108  This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.  Recently the United States Supreme Court decided a big case about political speech. The question was this: With political speech, do corporations have the same rights as people?  By a vote of five to four, the conservative majority on the court decided yes. Companies, labor unions and other organizations may now spend as they wish on independent efforts to elect or defeat candidates.  The ruling is based on the idea in the United States and many other countries that a corporation is a legal person.  Historian Jeff Sklansky says a slow shift to personhood for American companies began with a Supreme Court ruling in eighteen nineteen. It said states cannot interfere with private contracts creating corporations.  In the ruling, Chief Justice John Marshall described a corporation as an "artificial being" that is a "creature of the law."  The ruling was unpopular. It came as Americans resisted big corporations like the First Bank of the United States, chartered by Congress. Some states passed laws permitting themselves to change or even cancel corporate charters.  After the Civil War in the eighteen sixties, the Fourteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution. It provides that no state may "deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law... " If a corporation is legally a person, then states cannot limit corporate rights without due process of law either.  At first, corporations were not fully recognized as persons. But Jeff Sklansky at Oregon State University says that changed.  JEFF SKLANSKY: "The general direction of the Supreme Court and the federal courts in general was to recognize corporations as persons with the same Fourteenth Amendment rights as individuals."  Yet corporations have a right that real people do not: limited liability. For example, a corporation can face civil or criminal fines and individual lawbreakers can go to jail. But limited liability means the actions of a corporation are not the responsibility of its shareholders.  Jeff Sklansky says the nineteenth century development of limited liability helped shape the modern corporation.  JEFFREY SKLANSKY: "That is also crucial to allowing corporations a kind of independent personhood and separating ownership from control or ownership from management. So [the idea is] that I can invest in a corporation without becoming liable for all its debts. That's a really big deal. Without it, anything like the modern stock market, I'd say, is impossible."  And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. Next week, more on corporations and the law. I'm Steve Ember.

109 Week Thirteen (Interpreting for Economy)  Objectives: After this training:  1. You are to be expected to acquire interpreting knowledge and skills for Economy.  2. You are expected to expand their vocabulary to the area of economic development.

110  This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.  European Union officials agreed on a debt rescue plan this week. They also got a message from Britain's new governing parties.  WILLIAM HAGUE: "It was not difficult to agree between us that neither party is in favor of handing any more powers to the European Union."  That was William Hague, the new foreign secretary. In last Thursday's elections, the Conservatives won the most seats in parliament but not a majority. So they and the Liberal Democrats have formed Britain's first coalition government since World War Two.  Gordon Brown resigned late Tuesday as prime minister. His Labor Party held power for thirteen years, the last three under him.  In his place moves David Cameron of the Conservative Party. At forty-three he is Britain's youngest head of government since eighteen twelve. Nick Clegg of the Liberal Democrats is his deputy.  Their new government will have to deal with Britain's own debt crisis. The budget deficit is about twelve percent of the economy. David Cameron has promised nine billion dollars in budget cuts as a start. Both parties agreed to make no proposal for Britain to join the sixteen countries that use the euro.  Markets have eased since Monday's announcement of a nearly one trillion dollar rescue plan. It involves loans, debt guarantees and other support to euro area countries with heavy debts. Some of the money will come from the International Monetary Fund.  Olli Rehn, the E.U. monetary affairs commissioner, said the debt crisis is a serious threat.  OLLI REHN: "This has clearly been a systemic challenge for financial stability in the euro area. It is not an attack on one or another individual member states. It is a threat to financial stability of the euro area and the European Union."  The crisis in Greece has threatened to spread to other countries and has led to protests and violence over spending cuts. But now, interest rates for borrowing by troubled countries like Greece and Portugal have fallen sharply.  Many people blamed the Greek crisis for the sudden drop in American stock markets last Thursday. It may have played a part. But this week, officials told Congress they were still investigating the causes of the so-called flash crash.  Major stock exchanges have agreed to develop a plan to prevent a disorderly market like that again. The idea is to slow trading in a coordinated way.  The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell nearly one thousand points in minutes, then largely recovered. The plunge renewed debate about the risks of electronic exchanges and high-speed computer trading systems.  And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. I'm Steve Ember.Economics Report

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113 Week Fourteen (Interpreting for international relations)  Objectives: After this training:  1. You are expected to acquire interpreting knowledge and skills for international relations.  2.You are expected to expand their vocabulary to the area of international relations.

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116 Week Fifteen (Interpreting for cultural exchanges)  Objectives:  After this training;  1. You are expected to acquire interpreting knowledge and skills for cultural exchanges.  2. The students are expected to expand their vocabulary to the area of culture.

117  VOICE ONE:  Welcome to THIS IS AMERICA. I'm Faith Lapidus. This Thursday is a day for families and friends to share a special holiday meal and think about what they are thankful for. This week on our program, we ask some people to share their favorite memories of Thanksgiving Day.  (MUSIC)  VOICE ONE:  Special English reporters June Simms and Dana Demange talked to people about the holiday.  JIM OLDHAM: "My name is Jim Oldham and I'm from Nashville, Tennessee. I remember my father drove a bus and my mother was a waitress, and so we often didn't get to have Thanksgiving together. And I remember when I was about twelve, her work and his work permitted us all to do that. And we had brothers and sisters, and the traditional turkey and all the trimmings. We always had pumpkin pie, and if we were really lucky, a little bit of whipped cream on top. And it was just a wonderful day."  ANN GEIGER: "I'm Ann Geiger from Tucson, Arizona. Thanksgiving is special for our family because like so many families our adult children live around the country. And we usually get at least part of them together for Thanksgiving."  REPORTER: "And what is one of your fondest Thanksgiving Day memories?"  ANN GEIGER: "Oh, I think a recent Thanksgiving when my son and I had a turkey cook-off. He brined his turkey and I didn't brine mine. And we decided which one was the best."  REPORTER: "Who won?"  ANN GEIGER: "He did."  VOICE ONE:  Brining is a way to prepare meat in a salt solution, whether for a competitive "cook-off" or just any meal. Traditionally the meat served on Thanksgiving is turkey. The bird is usually served with side dishes including a mixture known either as stuffing or dressing.  Many families also bring out their finest table settings -- the "good china" -- for Thanksgiving.  JOEL UPTON: "My name is Joel Upton. I'm from Livingston, Tennessee. Thanksgiving at my family was always a time when brothers and sisters, aunts and uncles, cousins, we all got together. And someone would bring different dishes. Someone would bring the sweet potatoes. Someone would bring the meat. Someone would bring the dressing. And we would all sort of combine the efforts to have a family Thanksgiving dinner and bring out the good china for that particular event.  And Thanksgiving also, in my early days when I was a child, the kids would all get to play, maybe we hadn't seen each other for a while. The men would always watch a football game on TV. And Thanksgiving was just a really, really special time. And, of course, we had in mind the Pilgrims and what it was all about too. But it was a family time."  VOICE ONE:  The Pilgrims first arrived in America in sixteen twenty. They were separatists from the Church of England and other settlers. The ship that brought the first group was the Mayflower.  An exploring party landed at Plymouth, in what became the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The state is named after an American Indian tribe -- a recognition of the groups that came long before the Pilgrims.  The first Pilgrims established a village. Those who survived the first difficult years held harvest festivals and religious celebrations of thanksgiving. These events formed the basis of the holiday that Americans now celebrate.  But there are no official "rules" for a Thanksgiving meal. Some people like to find ways to do things a little differently.  BUTCH HUNSINGER: "Butch Hunsinger from Williamsport, Pennsylvania.“  REPORTER: "The bird. What are you going to do differently this year?"  BUTCH HUNSINGER: "Try to shoot it myself, instead of go to the store to buy it. Go to the family cabin, and hunt on the family land and try to call in a turkey and fire away."  REPORTER: "And who's the better shot in the family?"  BUTCH: "Oh my son, by far."  REPORTER: "What about your worst Thanksgiving memory?"  BUTCH: "Worst...[Laughter] The worst was also the funnest, 'cause I got up early Thanksgiving day and we went to the Burwick Marathon, but it's a nine-mile road race. Just a crusher." [Laughter]  HUGUETTE MBELLA: "Hi, my name is Huguette Mbella. And I was born in Cameroon and grew up in France. And I live now in the United States in Washington, D.C. The whole concept of Thanksgiving was a little bit bizarre. In France, the main celebration is Christmas, not Thanksgiving."  REPORTER: "Can you think of one of your most fond Thanksgiving memories?"

118  HUGUETTE MBELLA: "I would say my first one. It was in New York. Suddenly the turkey comes on the table, and I was amazed by the size. It was huge! The first thing that came to my mind was actually that's a lot of food!"  ELIZABETH BRINKMAN: "My name is Elizabeth Brinkman and I'm from Cleveland, Ohio. It was always a day that my mother did all the cooking. And we had turkey and I got to chop the vegetables for the dressing. And we got out the good china."  GORDON GEIGER: "Gordon Geiger from Tucson, Arizona. We used to get together at my parents' house and all of my relatives would come over and we'd have a big dinner. And after dinner we would watch football games on the television.  I think it's probably really the most important holiday in the United States because it is a day that is not tied to a particular religion. It is not tied as much to commercial activities. It's more a reflection of the fact that we've had a good life and we appreciate it."  (MUSIC)  VOICE ONE:  This Thanksgiving, Americans can be thankful that the Great Recession may be over. But the job market faces a long recovery. Unemployment is now above ten percent. And if the underemployed are added, the rate is seventeen and a half percent. The underemployed are people no longer searching for work or only able to find part time jobs.  Last week, the United States Department of Agriculture released its "household food security" report for two thousand eight. The study found that families in seventeen million households had difficulty getting enough food at times during the year. That was almost fifteen percent -- up from eleven percent in two thousand seven. It was the highest level since the current surveys began in nineteen ninety-five.  The Agriculture Department says poverty is the main cause of food insecurity and hunger in the United States.  President Obama, in a statement, called the report unsettling. Especially troubling, he said, is that there were more than five hundred thousand families in which a child experienced hunger multiple times during the year.  He said the first task is to renew job growth, but added that his administration is taking other steps to prevent hunger. These include an increase in aid for people in the government's nutrition assistance program, commonly known as food stamps.  (MUSIC)  VOICE ONE:  The Continental Congress wrote the first national Thanksgiving proclamation in seventeen seventy-seven, during the Revolutionary War. George Washington issued the first presidential Thanksgiving proclamation in seventeen eighty-nine. Here is part of what he wrote.  READER:  Whereas it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor -- and whereas both houses of Congress have by their joint committee requested me "to recommend to the people of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness."  Now therefore I do recommend and assign Thursday the twenty-sixth day of November next to be devoted by the people of these states to the service of that great and glorious being, who is the beneficent author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be...  VOICE ONE:  Sarah Josepha Hale was a magazine editor and writer who campaigned for a Thanksgiving holiday. That way, there would be "two great American national festivals," she said, the other being Independence Day on the Fourth of July.  In September of eighteen sixty-three, Sarah Josepha Hale appealed to President Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln had made proclamations in the spring of eighteen sixty-two and sixty-three. But these gave thanks for victories in battle during the Civil War.  Then came another proclamation on October third, eighteen sixty-three. It gave more general thanks for the blessings of the year. This is part of what it said:  READER:  In the midst of a civil war of unequaled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign states to invite and to provoke their aggression, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere, except in the theater of military conflict, while that theater has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union.  Needful diversions of wealth and of strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defense have not arrested the plow, the shuttle, or the ship; the ax has enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals, have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore....  I do therefore invite my fellow-citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next as a day of thanksgiving and praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the heavens.  VOICE ONE:  Lincoln's proclamation began a tradition. Presidents have issued Thanksgiving proclamations every year since eighteen sixty-three. All can be found on the Web site of the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth.  In nineteen forty-one, Franklin Roosevelt was president. Roosevelt approved a resolution by Congress. It established, by law, the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day.  (MUSIC)  Our program was produced by Caty Weaver. I'm Faith Lapidus. Join us again next week for THIS IS AMERICA in VOA Special English.

119 Week Sixteen (Interpreting for sciences)  Objectives:  After this training:  1. You are expected to acquire interpreting knowledge and skills for sciences.  2. The students are expected to expand their vocabulary to the area of scientific terms.

120  This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Faith Lapidus.  BOB DOUGHTY: And I'm Bob Doughty. The work and theories of Sigmund Freud continue to influence many areas of modern culture.  FAITH LAPIDUS: Today, we explore Freud's influence on the treatment of mental disorders through psychotherapy.  (MUSIC)  BOB DOUGHTY: Sigmund Freud was born May sixth, eighteen fifty-six, in Moravia, in what is now the Czech Republic. He lived most of his life in Vienna, Austria. Early in his adulthood, Freud studied medicine. By the end of the nineteenth century, he was developing some exciting new ideas about the human mind. But his first scientific publications dealt with sea animals, including the sexuality of eels.  FAITH LAPIDUS: Freud was one of the first scientists to make serious research of the mind. The mind is the collection of activities based in the brain that involve how we act, think, feel and reason.  He used long talks with patients and the study of dreams to search for the causes of mental and emotional problems. He also tried hypnosis. He wanted to see if putting patients into a sleep-like condition would help ease troubled minds. In most cases he found the effects only temporary.  Freud worked hard, although what he did might sound easy. His method involved sitting with his patients and listening to them talk. He had them talk about whatever they were thinking. All ideas, thoughts and anything that entered their mind had to be expressed. There could be no holding back because of fear or guilt.  BOB DOUGHTY: Freud believed that all the painful memories of childhood lay buried in the unconscious self.? He said this part of the mind contains wishes, desires and experiences too frightening to recognize.  He thought that if these memories could somehow be brought into the conscious mind, the patient would again feel the pain. But this time, the person would experience the memories as an adult. The patient would feel them, be able to examine them and, if successful, finally understand them.  Using this method, Freud reasoned, the pain and emotional pressure of the past would be greatly weakened. They would lose their power over the person's physical health. Soon the patient would get better.  (MUSIC)  FAITH LAPIDUS: Sigmund Freud proposed that the mind was divided into three parts: the id, the ego and the superego. Under this theory, the superego acts as a restraint. It is governed by the values we learn from our parents and society. The job of the superego is to help keep the id under control.  The id is completely unconscious. It provides the energy for feelings that demand the immediate satisfaction of needs and desires.  The ego provides the immediate reaction to the events of reality. The ego is the first line of defense between the self and the outside world. It tries to balance the two extremes of the id and the superego.  BOB DOUGHTY: Many of Freud's theories about how the mind works also had strong sexual connections. These ideas included what he saw as the repressed feelings of sons toward their mothers and daughters toward their fathers.  If nothing else, Freud's ideas were revolutionary. Some people rejected them. Others came to accept them. But no one disputes his great influence on the science of mental health.  Professor James Gray at American University in Washington, D.C. says three of Freud's major ideas are still part of modern thinking about the mind.  One is the idea of the unconscious mind. Another is that we do not necessarily know what drives us to do the things we do. And the third is that we are formed more than we think in the first five years, but not necessarily the way Freud thought.  (MUSIC)  FAITH LAPIDUS: Doctor Freud was trained as a neurologist. He treated disorders of the nervous system. But physical sickness can hide deeper problems. His studies on the causes and treatment of mental disorders helped form many ideas in psychiatry. Psychiatry is the area of medicine that treats mental and emotional conditions.  Freud would come to be called the father of psychoanalysis.  BOB DOUGHTY: Psychoanalysis is a method of therapy. It includes discussion and investigation of hidden fears and conflicts.  Sigmund Freud used free association. He would try to get his patients to free their minds and say whatever they were thinking. He also had them talk about their dreams to try to explore their unconscious fears and desires.  His version of psychoanalysis remained the one most widely used until at least the nineteen fifties.  FAITH LAPIDUS: Psychoanalysis is rarely used in the United States anymore. One reason is that it takes a long time; the average length of treatment is about five years. Patients usually have to pay for the treatment themselves. Health insurance plans rarely pay for this form of therapy.

121  Psychoanalysis has its supporters as well as its critics. Success rates are difficult to measure. Psychoanalysts say this is because each individual case is different.  BOB DOUGHTY: More recently, a number of shortened versions of psychological therapy have been developed. Some examples are behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavior is actions; cognition is knowing and judging.  Some patients in therapy want to learn to find satisfaction in what they do. Others want to unlearn behaviors that only add to their problems.  In these therapies, patients might talk with a therapist about the past. Or patients might be advised to think less about the past and more about the present and the future.  (MUSIC)  FAITH LAPIDUS: Other kinds of therapy involve movement, dance, art, music or play. These are used to help patients who have trouble talking about their emotions.  In many cases, therapy today costs less than it used to. But the length of treatment depends on the problem. Some therapies, for example, call for twenty or thirty visits with a therapist.  How long people continue their therapy can also depend on the cost. People find that health insurance plans are often more willing to pay for short-term therapies than for longer-term treatments.  BOB DOUGHTY: Mental health experts say therapy can often help patients suffering from depression, severe stress or other conditions.  For some patients, they say, a combination of talk therapy and medication works best. There are many different drugs for depression, anxiety and other mental and emotional disorders.  Critics, however, say doctors are sometimes too quick to give medicine instead of more time for talk therapy. Again, cost pressures are often blamed.  Mental health problems can affect work, school, marriage, and life in general. Yet they often go untreated. In many cases, people do not want others to know they have a problem.  FAITH LAPIDUS: Mental disorders are common in all countries. The World Health Organization says hundreds of millions of people throughout the world are affected by mental, behavioral, neurological or substance use disorders.  The W.H.O. says these disorders have major economic and social costs. Yet governments face difficult choices about health care spending. The W.H.O. says most poor countries spend less than one percent of their health budgets on mental health.  There are treatments for most conditions. Still, the W.H.O. says there are two major barriers. One is lack of recognition of the seriousness of the problem. The other is lack of understanding of the services that exist.  (MUSIC)  BOB DOUGHTY: The father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, left Vienna soon after troops from Nazi Germany entered Austria in nineteen thirty-eight. The Nazis had a plan to kill all the Jews of Europe, but they permitted Freud to go to England. His four sisters remained in Vienna and were all killed in Nazi concentration camps.  Freud was eighty-three years old when he died of cancer in London on September twenty-third, nineteen thirty-nine. Anna Freud, the youngest of his six children, became a noted psychoanalyst herself.  Before Sigmund Freud, no modern scientist had looked so deeply into the human mind.  (MUSIC)  FAITH LAPIDUS: SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written and produced by Brianna Blake. I'm Faith Lapidus.  BOB DOUGHTY: And I'm Bob Doughty. You can download transcripts and audio archives of our programs at Listen again next week for more news about science, in Special English, on the Voice of America.

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