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Revolutions in England

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Presentation on theme: "Revolutions in England"— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolutions in England 1603-1689

2 A. Limited Monarchy 1600s = Absolute Monarchy was the rule. England was the exception. King John agreed in the year to share power with the wealthy members of society. Magna Carta (Great Charter)

3 A. Limited Monarchy (c0nt.)
The wealthier classes in England were represented in a two house body called: Parliament House of Commons House of Lords Seats inherited by members of the landowning families. Seats elected by the middle class.

4 A. Limited Monarchy (c0nt.)
Parliament traditionally held the “power of the purse.” Parliament controlled access to the wealth of the country. If the king needed money, he would go to Parliament and ask them to pass tax laws.

5 B. James I Tudor monarchs: Henry VIII (1509-1547)
Edward VI ( ) Mary I ( ) Elizabeth I ( ) Elizabeth never married and never had children. She died without an heir.

6 B. James I (cont.) James VI, King of Scotland. First cousin of
Elizabeth I. A member of the Stuart family.

7 B. James I (cont.) In 1603, James traveled south and became King James I of England. In Scotland, James ruled as an absolute monarch. Wrote a book called The True Law of Free Monarchies.

8 B. James I (cont.) James had no love for Parliament. James asked to be called “King of Great Britain,” Parliament refused. James asked for money to fight wars, Parliament refused. Parliament tried to squeeze James by putting him on a budget.

9 B. James I (cont.) James preferred to ignore Parliament and rule without their input. In 1625, James died. He left his thrones (and his poor relationship with Parliament) to his son, Charles I.

10 C. Charles I Charles Stuart King of England and Scotland

11 C. Charles I (cont.) Charles intended to rule with absolute power.
Instead of asking Parliament for money, he took “forced loans.” Those who refused to pay were often imprisoned.

12 C. Charles I (cont.) In 1628, Charles assembled Parliament to ask for taxes to pay for a possible war with Spain & France. Parliament demanded that Charles accept a contract called the “Petition of Right.”

13 C. Charles I (cont.) Petition of Right: 1) No forced loans.
2) No imprisonment w/o just cause. 3) No quartering troops in private homes.

14 C. Charles I (cont.) Charles agreed to the Petition but then dissolved Parliament for 11 years. This was called the “Eleven-Year Tyranny.” In 1640, rebellion in Scotland caused Charles to call Parliament again and ask for money.

15 C. Charles I (cont.) The House of Commons called the king out:
1) No taxes w/o consent. 2) Triennial Act. 3) Dissolved only with consent. 4) Passed a resolution officially calling Charles a tyrant.

16 C. Charles I (cont.) Charles brought 400 soldiers into the H of C and demanded the arrest of five of its leaders. The H of C considered this an act of war by the king and organized an army. In 1642, the English Civil War began.

17 D. The Civil War The English Civil War was fought from 1642-49.
The issue was POWER. Would the king get all of it, or would the common people get some, too.

18 D. The Civil War (cont.) The King’s army was known as the “Cavaliers.”
Charles I Church Lords Peasants The King’s army was known as the “Cavaliers.”

19 Middle class townspeople
D. The Civil War (cont.) House of Commons Middle class townspeople The Commons army was called the New Model Army and nicknamed the “Roundheads.”

20 D. The Civil War (cont.) v.

21 D. The Civil War (cont.) In 1649, the King’s army was crushed after a series of defeats. Charles I was captured and put on trial in front of a court set up by the House of Commons. He was found guilty of being a tyrant and sentenced to death.

22 “A king has no superior jurisdiction on earth”
Charles I “A king has no superior jurisdiction on earth”

23 E. The Commonwealth & Restoration
After executing the King, the Commons voted to abolish the House of Lords and the monarchy. They proclaimed England a republic called the Commonwealth. Oliver Cromwell was the most powerful figure in the new government.

24 E. The Commonwealth & Restoration (cont.)
Oliver Cromwell Member of the House of Commons General in the New Model Army

25 E. The Commonwealth & Restoration (cont.)
Scotland 1650 Ireland 1649

26 E. The Commonwealth & Restoration (cont.)
Back in London, Cromwell found the House of Commons doing nothing but arguing. In 1653, he dismissed the members and proclaimed himself “Lord Protector of the Commonwealth.” The government was now a military dictatorship.

27 E. The Commonwealth & Restoration (cont.)
When Cromwell died in 1658, his title passed to his son Richard. Richard did not have the support of the army. The army leaders called for Parliament to be reconvened.

28 E. The Commonwealth & Restoration (cont.)
Parliament decided to restore the limited monarchy. They offered the throne to the oldest son of Charles I who had spent most of life in France. In 1660, he was crowned Charles II.

29 E. The Commonwealth & Restoration (cont.)
Charles II King of England, Scotland & Ireland

30 F. The Glorious Revolution
Charles II maintained a peaceful relationship with Parliament. In 1685, he died without a legitimate child to inherit his throne. The crown was passed to his younger brother, who became James II.

31 F. The Glorious Revolution (cont.)
James II King of England, Scotland & Ireland

32 F. The Glorious Revolution (cont.)
James spent most of his life in France. James envied French kings and wanted to rule the way they did. He appointed Catholics to high government offices in violation of laws passed by Parliament.

33 F. The Glorious Revolution (cont.)
When Parliament protested, James shut them down. To avoid another conflict, Parliament decided to wait James out. James married twice, his first wife was a Protestant who gave him a daughter, Mary, who was next in line.

34 F. The Glorious Revolution (cont.)
When his wife died, James remarried – to a Catholic – who in 1688 had a son, also named James. Now, Parliament decided to move. Mary was married to her first cousin, a powerful Dutch prince, named William of Orange.

35 F. The Glorious Revolution (cont.)
In 1688, William & Mary brought their army and marched on James II. When the British Army refused to fight, James II fled back to France. William & Mary became joint rulers of England.

36 F. The Glorious Revolution (cont.)

37 F. The Glorious Revolution (cont.)
In 1689, Parliament had William & Mary sign the English Bill of Rights: 1) Parliament’s laws are supreme. 2) Approval needed to raise taxes or an army. 3) Protected free speech. 4) Guaranteed right to trial by jury, and outlawed cruel and unusual punishment.

38 G. Hobbes & Locke Revisited
Hobbes wrote Leviathan in 1651. He saw the execution of Charles I and the Civil War as an example of how rebellion leads to the state of nature. He concluded that a ruler should have absolute power and that the people should not rebel.

39 G. Hobbes & Locke Revisited (cont.)
Locke published his Two Treatises of Government in 1689. He had seen three bad rulers overthrown and successfully replaced by better ones. He concluded from this that rebellion was sometimes a good and necessary thing.

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