Presentation on theme: "Population and Settlement"— Presentation transcript:
1 Population and Settlement Population ChangePopulation and SettlementImage: Courtesy of NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio. This image is created by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon from data provided by Christopher Elvidge of the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center.
2 Flash activity (these activities are not editable) World population changeThe demographic transition modelPopulation structureManaging population changeContentsFor more detailed instructions, please see the Getting Started presentation.Icons:Flash activity (these activities are not editable)Web addressesPrintable activityTeacher’s notes included in the Notes PageExtension activity
3 Key questions: World population change By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:How is world population changing?How is the world’s population distributed?How can population change be calculated?What factors affect birth and death rates?
4 Key demographic terminology Teacher’s note: This click to link activity is printable either as a solved answer sheet (when the print button is pressed after the activity has been solved) or as an unsolved worksheet at any other time.Students should already be familiar with these terms. It should be emphasized that crude birth rate and death rate is when the rates are averaged out over the whole population regardless of age or sex.As an example of fertility rate, the UK’s is 1.66 children according to the 2009 estimate. Statistics can be found at this address:This weblink was working correctly at the time of publication. Boardworks takes no responsibility for the content of external sites.The replacement level is widely accepted at about 2.1 children in most industrialized countries, so people are not having enough children to replace the number of women in the population that are necessary to keep reproduction levels constant. In developing countries the replacement rate is higher due to higher mortality rates, particularly infant mortality.4
5 World population growth by region Teacher’s note: Students should be able to answer questions about the graph. Possible questions include:Describe the changes in world population growth.Compare the growth rates of the developed continents and the developing continents.What is a weakness of this data? Students are likely to suggest that it shows only continental values – individual countries will vary a lot within the continent.The statistics were obtained from this address:They can be found in Table 2 on page 6.This weblink was working correctly at the time of publication. Boardworks takes no responsibility for the content of external sites.5
7 Calculating population change Population change is a measure of how much a country’s population has increased or decreased, usually over one year.Population change can be expressed as a simple figure.It is calculated using this formula:()()number of birthsnumber of deathsnumber of immigrantsnumber of emigrants–+–The UK’s population change is calculated as:(748,600 – 572,200) + (561,000 – 387,000) = 350,400Teacher’s note: The statistics were obtained from this address:They are for 2006 and can be found in Table B1 on page 97.As an extension activity, you could ask students to perform their own calculations for the population change of the UK for previous years, using the information provided in Table B1 on page 97 of the weblink.This weblink was working correctly at the time of publication. Boardworks takes no responsibility for the content of external sites.It can be also be expressed as a percentage growth rate:(population change ÷ total population) ×The UK’s percentage growth rate is calculated as:350,400 ÷ 60,587,300 = 0.58%7
9 Key questions: The demographic transition model By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:What is the demographic transition model and what is its purpose?What are the stages of the demographic transition model and how do they apply to different countries?What relevance does the demographic transition model have today?9
10 The demographic transition model Teacher’s note: At stage 1 there is a high birth and death rate, so the population remains low. As the death rate falls in stage 2, the population begins to grow rapidly. The population growth slows in stage 3 as the birth rate falls. At stage 4 the birth rate and death rate have levelled out once more so the population remains stable.10
13 A fifth stage?Teacher’s note: Students should be able to predict the shape of stage 5 based on the information given, i.e. a declining birth rate and increasing death rate will lead to a decrease in population. You could also ask students whether they think this stage is appropriate to the model and to justify their argument.13
17 Key questions: Population structure By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:What are population pyramids and how are they used?What is the age and population structure of the UK?What impacts do ageing and youthful populations have on a country?How does migration affect population change?How has migration affected the UK’s population?
18 Key population terminology Teacher’s note: This click to link activity is printable either as a solved answer sheet (when the print button is pressed after the activity has been solved) or as an unsolved worksheet at any other time.Students should already be familiar with these terms.18
19 What is happening to the USA’s population? Population structurePopulation structure is the numbers in, and distribution of, different age groups in a population.Those who are aged 0–15 and those who are aged over 65 are the dependent population. The active population is those aged 16–64, who are expected to be in employment.The graph shows the USA’s population structure as percentages of dependent and active population.Teacher’s note: The USA has an ageing population, as shown by the rising percentage of the population aged over 65. The percentage of the young dependent population is predicted to fall slightly, which means that when it is combined with the old dependent population, the active population is set to decrease in size. The result of this is an increased pressure on a proportionally smaller active population to support the proportionally larger dependent population in terms of upbringing and pensions.Please note that in some cases the young dependent population is regarded as those aged 0–14 and the active population is aged 15–65. This is the case for the graph here.The statistics were obtained from this address:The required information was input into the Population by Age and Sex table.This weblink was working correctly at the time of publication. Boardworks takes no responsibility for the content of external sites.What is happening to the USA’s population?19
23 Population structure of the UK The UK has an ageing population. Although the population exceeds60 million, birth rates are falling and the proportion of elderly dependents is rising.Like much of western Europe, the UK is at stage 4 of the DTM.Teacher’s note: The UK’s population is million, its birth rate is per 1000 population and its death rate is per 1000 population. Its population growth rate is 0.279%, yet the fertility level is 1.66, well below the replacement rate. The reason for the UK’s population increase is migration. In 2006, 561,000 migrants entered the UK. Further information about migration is given on slides 26–28.The population statistics were obtained from this address:The migration statistics were obtained from this address:They can be found in Table B1 on page 97.The statistics used for the bar chart were obtained from this address:The statistics used for the population pyramid were obtained from this address:These weblinks were working correctly at the time of publication. Boardworks takes no responsibility for the content of external sites.What is responsible for the UK’s population increase?23
27 Impacts of migration: labour Teacher’s note: This drag and drop activity is printable either as a solved answer sheet (when the print button is pressed after the activity has been solved) or as an unsolved worksheet at any other time.27
28 Impacts of migration: interrelations Teacher’s note: This drag and drop activity is printable either as a solved answer sheet (when the print button is pressed after the activity has been solved) or as an unsolved worksheet at any other time.28
29 Map showing the origin of immigrants to the UK Migration in the UK7.5% of the UK’s population were born abroad, approximately 4.3 million people. Half of the UK’s population growth between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. Without it, the UK’s population would be in decline.Immigration to the UK has increased since the 1990s, particularly since However, emigration has also risen over this period, though net migration levels have risen overall.Teacher’s note: Immigration levels have risen chiefly because of the expansion of the European Union (EU) in All members of the EU have the right to free movement of people between the different countries, so with the enlargement many people had the opportunity to enter the UK. One of the biggest migrant groups in the UK is from Poland, which was one of the new member states. The right to free movement of people also explains the large number of French, German and Italians in the UK, as they have all been EU members since its inception. Large numbers of immigrants to the UK are from countries with historical links to it through the British Empire and the Commonwealth. These include Ireland, South Africa, India, Pakistan, the Caribbean, Australia and the USA.Image: map showing the UK’s foreign-born population by country of birth. This image was released into the public domain by its author.Map showing the origin of immigrants to the UKWhat reasons are there for the migration trends and the pattern of immigration shown by the map?29
30 Key questions: Managing population change By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:What are anti-natal and pro-natal policies?Why has China implemented an anti-natal policy and what are its effects?How do pro-natal policies vary in Singapore and Italy?30
32 Impacts of China’s one child policy China’s one child policy is controversial both within and outside China and has many impacts. These include:draconian enforcementa lack of freedom of choiceinfanticide and the abandonment of girlsa disproportionate number of malesa lack of extended family in the futurea rural/urban divide (rural residents are allowed a second child with permission)Teacher’s note: Students will have their own opinions on the effectiveness of the policy and the moral questions it raises, including the lack of human rights involved and the strict enforcement of the policy.The Chinese authorities claim that the policy has prevented over 250 million births in its first twenty years and that it has reduced social, economic and environmental problems.However, it may have long term social and economic consequences as a result of the impacts. The disproportionate number of males (117 males to every 100 females in 2000) means that the future will see a further drop in fertility rate and a lack of women for men to marry. China has a tradition of favouring sons, which has further impacted on the gender imbalance as baby girls are either killed or abandoned. The government sign in the photo reads ‘It is forbidden to discriminate against, mistreat or abandon baby girls.’A lack of extended family has potential major social implications as family units will be small and one child may end up caring for two parents and four grandparents. This also has an economic impact in that a smaller active population will be supporting an increasing elderly dependent one, so there will be fewer resources being produced.There have also been some more recent changes to the policy that have relaxed it. Rural residents are allowed a second child with government permission. Couples without siblings may also have two children with permission to stop in order to stop the birth rate reducing too dramatically. The policy also only applies to the Han Chinese ethnic group.Photo: A message from the government in Sichuan province, China which warns that it is forbidden to discriminate against, mistreat or abandon baby girls. This image was released into the public domain by its author.reduced population growth has impacted on resources.Do you think the policy is effective? What might be the long term consequences of these impacts?32
34 Summary quiz Teacher’s note: Answers: World population change: The birth rate falls2.1 children(Number of births – number of deaths) + (number of immigrants – number of emigrants)The number of babies, out of every 1000 who are born each year, who die before they are one year oldAsiaImproved sanitation schemesThe Demographic Transition Model:USAThe death rate falls, leading to a rapid increase in populationIt has brought about much quicker changes in birth and death rates than predicted by the modelCosta RicaGreater numbers of elderly people are living longer but eventually dyingIt has included a fifth stagePopulation structure:Declining tax base due to a declining active populationSouth American countriesThose aged 0–15 years and 65+ years oldOne group of immigrants dominating an area of a town or city, causing segregationPeople working below their capacityPopulation structureManaging population change:One child policy‘Have three if you can afford it’ sloganOne which is introduced by the government in order to curb population growthFree school places to children of female graduates1980sMore girls than boys
35 GlossaryTeacher’s note: To test students’ understanding of the topic, you may wish to ask them what each word in the glossary means before pressing to reveal the definition. Alternatively, you may wish to set students an extension or homework activity to research and define the terms. The definitions provided here can be used as an additional point of reference once they have completed the task.