Presentation on theme: "Assessing the enquiry process Andy Owen. Fieldwork and enquiry Where we are Pressure to deliver progress measures has reduced risk in many schools Fieldwork."— Presentation transcript:
Fieldwork and enquiry Where we are Pressure to deliver progress measures has reduced risk in many schools Fieldwork has become a series of routine tasks to be performed. Learners are not actively involved in decision making or evaluating. Where we want to be Fieldwork should be embedded in the curriculum, it’s not a bolt-on. Start from learners’ own experiences of places, or of the world through, for example, their own questions or perceptions. Learners should be able to make conceptual links between their local field study and wider geographical processes/patterns
A deficit model of fieldwork? Question Plan Observe Collect Record Represent Analyse ApplyReview In some cases learners have one opportunity to get this right
Creating a need to know Asking questions to: Identify issues / problems Be creative Hypothesise Make links with existing geographical knowledge Reflecting on learning To be critical in relation to: Data sources Techniques used / sampling strategies Stakeholder views How the enquiry could be improved The value of what was learnt Using data Using primary & secondary data to: Locate / contextualise the enquiry Collect evidence Select evidence Represent the evidence Making sense Query the evidence to: Analyse Recognise relationships Reach conclusions Make decisions / solve problems Relate findings to existing knowledge Acknowledgement: Margaret Roberts Will the new GCSE specifications encourage a wider approach to fieldwork? Few students encouraged to be creative at this stage e.g. in using apps Some students write to a checklist – how to evaluate etc.
Some limitations of controlled assessment Evidence suggests: 1.Middle ability candidates struggle to make a conceptual leap between theoretical understanding & evidence seen in the messy geography of a unique fieldwork site. 2.Over-structuring of CA tasks in some schools – reducing an expectation of critical thinking and evaluating what they have learned. 3. Presenting enquiry as a series of tasks based on measurement and recording. The aim of the enquiry, its links to wider geographical ideas and the importance of evaluation are often under-valued.
Closed taskFramed enquiryIndependent enquiry Questions A task is presented. Questions are not explicit. Enquiry questions are selected by teacher but are explicit. Students decide enquiry questions, framed by teacher input. Data Decisions about fieldwork procedure are made by teachers. Data is presented as authoritative evidence. Decisions about fieldwork procedure are made largely by teachers. Data is presented as information to be interpreted. Students are involved in key decisions about fieldwork procedure and data sources. Making sense Activities devised by teacher to achieve pre- determined objectives. Students follow instructions. Methods of representation are open to discussion and choice. Analysis is independent. Students independently analyse evidence and make decisions / reach conclusions. Reflection Predictable outcomes.Students discuss what they have learnt; different outcomes. Students consider the validity of evidence / reliability of data and methods. The weakest examples from Controlled Assessment The best examples from Controlled Assessment Where A level students will have to be from 2016
What were our aims when developing Component 3? The Eduqas model of fieldwork has been developed to ensure that learners are involved in the enquiry process – to encourage them to think geographically and critically. Give teachers the freedom to choose the context and location for their fieldwork – with as few constraints as possible Strengthen the link between local study and wider conceptual understanding.
The Eduqas approach DfE subject content requires two contrasting environments – e.g. rivers / coasts, urban / rural. Eduqas specifies two approaches: A focus on one fieldwork methodology A focus on one geographical concept Teachers are free to choose: Location: e.g. two separate days in different environments? or two days in a single location that offers contrasts e.g. Swanage, Peak District, Manchester. A topic or focus for enquiry. E.g. rural tourism? Rivers? Urban environments? A question for investigation
Creating a need to know Asking questions to: Identify issues / problems Be creative Hypothesise Make links with existing geographical knowledge Reflecting on learning To be critical in relation to : Data sources Techniques used / sampling strategies Stakeholder views How the enquiry could be improved The value of what was learnt Using data Using primary & secondary data to: Locate / contextualise the enquiry Collect evidence Select evidence Represent the evidence Making sense Query the evidence to: Analyse Recognise relationships Reach conclusions Make decisions / solve problems Relate findings to existing knowledge Acknowledgement: Margaret Roberts
Eduqas Geography fieldwork A common paper across both specifications, with two guiding principles for Eduqas Geography fieldwork: 1.Learners should be actively involved in planning the enquiry process – posing questions, selecting samples etc. E.g. how could I use my smartphone apps in collecting data? Where should I collect data? What kind of fieldwork report should I write? 2.A conceptual approach encourages learners to relate their understanding of the unique features of their field study site to the wider UK. E.g. What have I learned here that could apply elsewhere?
AFieldwork methodologies 1.Use of transects – e.g. quality of life across an urban area, flow and deposition across a river channel 2.Change over time – e.g. changing patterns of retailing, changing coastal management 3.Qualitative surveys – e.g. environmental quality of urban areas, the value of coastal landscapes 4.Geographical flows – e.g. commuter movements, river discharge changes downstream Different focus for each exam cycle: Publicised at least two years in advance of examination
Place – e.g. characteristics of coastal landforms in two locations Sphere of influence – e.g. sphere of influence of a large urban area and its impact on its hinterland Cycles and flows – e.g. migration survey, seasonal change in an ecosystem Mitigating risk – e.g. flood risk, local responses to climate change Sustainability – e.g. how far a settlement meets the requirements of Egan’s wheel, quality of urban environments in meeting people’s needs Inequality – e.g. quality of urban environment, comparing access to services in urban and rural areas BConceptual frameworks Also changed over different cycles, with at least 2 years advance notice
Time. For planning, preparation for the fieldwork and the consolidation phase For students to write-up their enquiry for exam preparation; a written outcome seems essential. Exam testing an experience from a year ago can’t be done purely from memory For skills development in designing, presenting, analysing, reflecting and evaluating Two topics over a two-year GCSE might take 8 weeks of fieldwork and write-up 4Implications for teaching
Key issues for geography departments Where will the two tasks sit within the learning programme? How much curriculum time for (a) preparation (b) consolidation? How best to ensure learners are involved in the full cycle from posing questions to evaluation and then providing an input to the next fieldwork? Encouraging enquiry (rather than tasks) at KS3? Planning progression to A level? How do I prepare/revise for the examination? Raising awareness with SLT? Support from the exam board?
New Assessment Objectives & fieldwork AO3 Apply knowledge and understanding to interpret, analyse and evaluate geographical information and issues and to make judgements. AO4 Select, adapt and use a variety of skills and techniques to investigate questions and issues and communicate findings. 35% (10% fwk) 25% (5% fwk) So 15% total fieldwork, assessed only by AO3 and AO4
What might exams look like? 1 Investigating flows
What might exams look like? 2 Investigating sustainability
Any questions? Contact GCSE Geography Subject Officer: Andrew Owen email@example.com Follow on Twitter: @eduqas Visit the website: www.eduqas.co.uk