3 Section Objectives1. Summarize the colonial resistance to British taxation.2. Trace the mounting tension in Massachusetts.3. Summarize the battles of Lexington and Concord.
4 1. The Colonies Organize to Resist Britain Britain is using the colonies to pay off the French and Indian war debt.A. The Stamp ActStamp Act- A 1765 law in whichParliament established the first directtaxation of goods and services withinthe British colonies in North America.B. Stamp Act ProtestsIn response to the Stamp Actcolonists created the Sons of Liberty.Samuel Adams- One of the foundersof the Sons of Liberty.The Sons of Liberty harassed stampagents forcing them to resign.Act repealed, first time the colonieswere working as one.
5 C. The Townshend Acts Townshend Acts- A series of laws enacted by Parliament in 1767, establishing indirecttaxes on goods imported from Britain bythe British colonies in North America.Colonists reacted with rage protesting“taxation without representation”John Hancock (local merchant) is accusedof smuggling in wine by British customsagents.2,000 British soldiers were stationed inBoston after riots were triggered againstcustoms agents.
7 2. Tension Mounts in Massachusetts British soldiers create tension in Boston.A. The Boston MassacreCompetition of jobs between colonists andpoorly paid British soldiers led to the BostonMassacre.Boston Massacre- A clash between Britishsoldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, inwhich five of the colonists were killed.A plan was put in place tobring Americans to Englandfor trial.committees of correspondence- A groupset up by colonists to exchange informationabout British threats to their liberties.Significant because it linked the leaders ofnearly all the colonies.
9 B. The Boston Tea Party C. The Intolerable Acts Tea Act proposed to sell tea directlyto the colonists without a tax and cutcolonial merchants out.Boston Tea Party- Dumping of 18,000pounds of tea into Boston Harbor bycolonists in 1773 to protest the Tea Act.C. The Intolerable ActsKing George III- British King thatpressed Parliament to act after theBoston Tea Party.Intolerable Acts- A series of laws passedby Parliament in 1774 to punish Masscolonists for the Boston Tea Party.Shut down Boston Harbor, QuarteringAct, and put Boston under martial law.
10 Martial law- Rule imposed by military forces.In response to the intolerable acts thecolonists created the First ContinentalCongress in 1774, which met inPhiladelphia.Drew up a declaration of colonial rights.
11 3. Fighting Erupts at Lexington and Concord Minutemen- Civilian soldiers that began to stockpile firearms.A. To Concord, by the Lexington RoadGeneral Gage (British General) receivedword that the colonists had a large amountof weapons and ammunition outside Boston.Gage ordered his men to march to Concordand seize and destroy all weapons.B. “The Regulars are Coming”Paul Revere was ordered to warn SamuelAdams and John Hancock that the Britishwere coming.Significant because the British lost theelement of surprise.Revere was captured by the British, butwas released so they could travel faster.
12 C. “A Glorious Day for America” British soldiers and Minutemen squaredof at Lexington.Minutemen were ordered to lay downtheir weapons, when they didn’t a shotwas fired and the American Revolutionbegan. (Battle of Lexington)British marched to Concord and foundnothing, they went to march back to Bostonbut were met by 3,000-4,000 Minutemen.British soldiers fell by the dozen and theyretreated back to Boston.