Presentation on theme: "Socialization: Gender Identity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Socialization: Gender Identity Madiha AnasLecturerDepartment of Applied PsychologySchool of Social SciencesBeaconhouse National University
2 Basic Concepts Sex Gender Gender identity biological distinction between females and malessex characteristics includechromosomes,anatomy,Hormonesother physical traitsGendersocial and psychological characteristics associated with being male or femaleGender identityperception of self as a woman or man, masculine or feminineUnderstanding what it means for our behavior and opportunitiesSex is something we’re born with, while gender is learnedGender identity-I would argue that gender identity entails not only whether we think of ourselves as feminine or masculine, but also what we think this means for our behavior and opportunities
3 GENDER IDENTITY AND GENDER ROLE is one’s identification with, or sense of belonging to, a particular sex.Gender rolerefers to acting in accordance with widely shared expectations about how members of one’s gender are supposed to behave.
4 Gender Role : Socialization Gender role socialization is “...a lifelong process whereby people learn the values, attitudes, motivations, and behavior considered appropriate to each sex by their culture”Gender role socialization takes place from earliest childhood through adolescence and throughout all social interactions in which we participate
5 THE ORIGINS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES Essentialismis the view that male-female differences are universal and largely reflect biological differences.Social constructionismis the view that gender and sexuality are largely products of social structure and culture.
6 CONSTRUCTING GENDER THROUGH SOCIALIZATION Primary socializationBoys and girls are treated differently from the moment of birth.Girls are typically characterized as delicate, beautiful, etc., and boys as strong, alert, etc.Boys are encouraged to engage in competitive play,girls in co-operative play.Secondary socializationTeachers tend to treat students in ways that reflect culturally approved gender roles, e.g., they influence boys to excel in science and math, girls to excel in languages.Peer-group interactions and the mass media reinforce gender-typed attitudes and behaviours.
7 Gender Role : Socialization in Childhood From the time we are born we are being socialized along gender linesGirls wear pink, have bonnets and ribbons, are allowed to cry, and are caressed more than boysBoys wear blue, are expected to be strong, and discouraged from cryingThis socialization takes place not only by parents but also by siblings, peers, schools and the mass media
8 Gender Role Socialization in Adolescence Adolescence is a critical time for establishing gender identityGirls are encouraged to be passive and less achievement orientedBoys are encouraged to be competitive, autonomous and independentBecause gender roles are changing in the culture at large, adolescence can be even more uncertain with regard to gender identity than it once was
9 Gender Differences in Men and Women Research shows that men and women experience the world differentlyMen have a sense of autonomy, that they can accomplish what they set out to doWomen feel more limited in the control they have over their futureMen and women also tend to think and reason differentlyMen tend to be decisive, rational and firmWomen tend to consider “gray areas,” recognize complexities, and are more concerned about the feelings of others which often comes across as indecisive
10 Studies of Physiological Differences Between Men and Women Recent studies have found that men and women are variable susceptible to different types of diseasesIt is not entirely clear how much these differences are due to genetic and other biological factors and how much to cultural and environmental factors
11 Visual/Hearing Impairments Gender and DiseaseDiseaseGender Most AffectedHeart AttackMen more likely to suffer heart attacks and cardiovascular disease; Heart attacks are more fatal in womenCancerSecond leading cause of death for women: lung cancer heads the list followed by breast cancerOsteoporosisWomen are primarily affected by this diseaseImmunologic DiseasesAffect women much more than men: Autoimmune thyroid diseases 15:1; rheumatoid arthritis 3:1Mental DisordersMental illness is twice as high among womenAlzheimer’s DiseaseThis disease is higher among women and increases greatly after age 85Visual/Hearing ImpairmentsMen are 50% more likely to experience these symptoms