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Socialization: Gender Identity

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Presentation on theme: "Socialization: Gender Identity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Socialization: Gender Identity
Madiha Anas Lecturer Department of Applied Psychology School of Social Sciences Beaconhouse National University

2 Basic Concepts Sex Gender Gender identity
biological distinction between females and males sex characteristics include chromosomes, anatomy, Hormones other physical traits Gender social and psychological characteristics associated with being male or female Gender identity perception of self as a woman or man, masculine or feminine Understanding what it means for our behavior and opportunities Sex is something we’re born with, while gender is learned Gender identity-I would argue that gender identity entails not only whether we think of ourselves as feminine or masculine, but also what we think this means for our behavior and opportunities

is one’s identification with, or sense of belonging to, a particular sex. Gender role refers to acting in accordance with widely shared expectations about how members of one’s gender are supposed to behave.

4 Gender Role : Socialization
Gender role socialization is “...a lifelong process whereby people learn the values, attitudes, motivations, and behavior considered appropriate to each sex by their culture” Gender role socialization takes place from earliest childhood through adolescence and throughout all social interactions in which we participate

Essentialism is the view that male-female differences are universal and largely reflect biological differences. Social constructionism is the view that gender and sexuality are largely products of social structure and culture.

Primary socialization Boys and girls are treated differently from the moment of birth. Girls are typically characterized as delicate, beautiful, etc., and boys as strong, alert, etc. Boys are encouraged to engage in competitive play, girls in co-operative play. Secondary socialization Teachers tend to treat students in ways that reflect culturally approved gender roles, e.g., they influence boys to excel in science and math, girls to excel in languages. Peer-group interactions and the mass media reinforce gender-typed attitudes and behaviours.

7 Gender Role : Socialization in Childhood
From the time we are born we are being socialized along gender lines Girls wear pink, have bonnets and ribbons, are allowed to cry, and are caressed more than boys Boys wear blue, are expected to be strong, and discouraged from crying This socialization takes place not only by parents but also by siblings, peers, schools and the mass media

8 Gender Role Socialization in Adolescence
Adolescence is a critical time for establishing gender identity Girls are encouraged to be passive and less achievement oriented Boys are encouraged to be competitive, autonomous and independent Because gender roles are changing in the culture at large, adolescence can be even more uncertain with regard to gender identity than it once was

9 Gender Differences in Men and Women
Research shows that men and women experience the world differently Men have a sense of autonomy, that they can accomplish what they set out to do Women feel more limited in the control they have over their future Men and women also tend to think and reason differently Men tend to be decisive, rational and firm Women tend to consider “gray areas,” recognize complexities, and are more concerned about the feelings of others which often comes across as indecisive

10 Studies of Physiological Differences Between Men and Women
Recent studies have found that men and women are variable susceptible to different types of diseases It is not entirely clear how much these differences are due to genetic and other biological factors and how much to cultural and environmental factors

11 Visual/Hearing Impairments
Gender and Disease Disease Gender Most Affected Heart Attack Men more likely to suffer heart attacks and cardiovascular disease; Heart attacks are more fatal in women Cancer Second leading cause of death for women: lung cancer heads the list followed by breast cancer Osteoporosis Women are primarily affected by this disease Immunologic Diseases Affect women much more than men: Autoimmune thyroid diseases 15:1; rheumatoid arthritis 3:1 Mental Disorders Mental illness is twice as high among women Alzheimer’s Disease This disease is higher among women and increases greatly after age 85 Visual/Hearing Impairments Men are 50% more likely to experience these symptoms

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