Population Geography Demography Rates Cohort Crude Birth Rate (CBR) Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Crude Death Rate (CDR) Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The branch of human geography dealing with the number, composition, and distribution of humans in relation to variations in earth-space conditions
The statistical study of human population, with particular emphasis upon quantitative aspects.
record the frequency of occurrence of an event during a given time frame for a designated population
measures refer data to a population group unified by a specified common characteristic. Ex. The age cohort of 1-5 years, or the college class 2001
CBR is the annual number of live births per 1000 population, often referred to as the birth rate. It is crude because it relates births to total population w/o regard to the age or sex composition of that population. A country with a population of 2 million and with 40,000 births has a CBR of 20 per1,000. 40,000/2,000,000=20 per 1,000
Fig. 2-8: The crude birth rate (CBR) is the total number of births in a country per 1,000 population per year. The lowest rates are in Europe, and the highest rates are in Africa and several Asian countries.
The average number of children that would be born to each woman if, during her childbearing years, she bore children at the current year’s rate for women that age. A TFR of 2.1 is needed to replace the present population. World wide basis the TFR was 3.0.
Fig. 2-9: The Total fertility rate (TFR) is the number of children an average woman in a society will have through her childbearing years. The lowest rates are in Europe, and the highest are in Africa and parts of the Middle East.
The CDR, also called the mortality rate is calculated in the same way as the crude birth rate. The annual number of deaths per 1,000 population
Fig. 2-12: The crude death rate (CDR) is the total number of deaths in a country per 1,000 population per year. Because wealthy countries are in a late stage of the demographic transition, they often have a higher CDR than poorer countries.
The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths age 1 year or less
Fig. 2-10: The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births per year. The highest infant mortality rates are found in some of the poorest countries of Africa and Asia.
Rate of Natural Increase CBR – CDR Doubling Time Amount of time it takes for a population to double in size CALCULATED: 70/ RNI but must be expressed as whole number
Fig. 2-6: Total world population increased from 2.5 to 6 billion in this half century. The natural increase rate peaked in the early 1960s and has declined since, but the number of people added each year did not peak until 1990.
Fig. 2-11: Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. The highest life expectancies are generally in the wealthiest countries, and the lowest in the poorest countries.
Expresses the relationship between the number of inhabitants and the area they occupy.
Fig. 2-4: Arithmetic population density is the number of people per total land area. The highest densities are found in parts of Asia and Europe.
C.D. is the calculation of the number of people per unit of land. Usually a political region.
figure is misleading because all land is used including undeveloped or uninhabitable land with the developed districts it reveals nothing about either class of territory the larger the land are the less useful the figure It is better to compare regions or units of land that are similar
Arable land = land where crops are grown Division of total population by arable land. This is an expression of population pressure on agricultural land.
Fig. 2-5: Physiological density is the number of people per arable land area. This is a good measure of the relation between population and agricultural resources in a society.
depends on uncertain definitions of land classified as arable assumes all arable land is equally productive
90% of all people live north of equator ½ people live on 5% of land people congregate in lowland areas 2/3 of world’s population live within 300 miles of the ocean
Along the Nile River in Egypt Pockets in Africa and L. America The island of Java in Indonesia
uses millions of acres of arable land each year. Cities face problems of people living in areas around cities such as slums and shantytowns Massive problems of housing, education, and health services for residents
Africa—In 1950 only 2 cities had population over 1 million. By 2025 it is estimated that 36 cities will have populations of 4 million or more—average size 9 million
Fig. 2-26: The highest HIV infection rates are in sub-Saharan Africa. India and China have large numbers of cases, but lower infection rates at present.