Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Table of Contents Section 1 An Interconnected Planet"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 22 Table of Contents Section 1 An Interconnected Planet Humans and the EnvironmentTable of ContentsSection 1 An Interconnected PlanetSection 2 Environmental IssuesSection 3 Environmental Solutions
2 Section 1 An Interconnected Planet Chapter 22ObjectivesExplain the importance of the study of environmental science.Describe Earth’s major layers.Explain the natural functions of the ozone layer and greenhouse effect.Summarize the ways in which biologists measure biodiversity.Discuss the value of biodiversity.
3 Chapter 22 Earth’s Layers Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Earth’s LayersEarth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere are interconnected in many ways.Together, these parts make up the biosphere, the part of the Earth where life exists.
4 Earth’s Layers, continued Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Earth’s Layers, continuedAtmosphereImportant parts of the atmosphere are greenhouse gases, which trap heat on Earth, and the ozone layer, which shields Earth from UV radiation.
5 Earth’s Layers, continued Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Earth’s Layers, continuedClimate and AtmosphereThe atmosphere’s ability to trap heat in this way is called the greenhouse effect.
6 Section 1 An Interconnected Planet Chapter 22The Greenhouse Effect
7 Earth’s Layers, continued Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Earth’s Layers, continuedHydrosphereA very small portion of the hydrosphere is fresh water, and much of this fresh water is not easily usable.
8 Earth’s Layers, continued Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Earth’s Layers, continuedGeosphereThe geosphere exchanges materials with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
9 Earth’s Layers, continued Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Earth’s Layers, continuedBiosphereThe biosphere includes all parts of Earth where life exists.
10 Section 1 An Interconnected Planet Chapter 22BiodiversityBiodiversity refers to the variety of life found in an area.
11 Biodiversity, continued Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Biodiversity, continuedMeasuring BiodiversityBiodiversity can be measured in different ways, including by species richness, species evenness, and genetic diversity.
12 Biodiversity, continued Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Biodiversity, continuedValuing BiodiversityBiodiversity is valued for various reasons.
13 Chapter 22 Objectives Section 2 Environmental Issues Describe major consequences of air pollution.Relate air pollution to effects on global climate.Describe how chemical pollutants may undergo the process of biological magnification.Identify the primary causes of modern extinctions.Explain why extinctions and ecosystem disruption are of concern to humans.Relate human resource use to its impacts on ecosystems.
14 Section 2 Environmental Issues Chapter 22PollutionOver a short time period, human activities have affected global ecosystems in ways that harm humans and other species.Human impacts range from local pollution to global change in ecosystems.
15 Chapter 22 Pollution, continued Ozone Thinning Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Pollution, continuedOzone ThinningIndustrial chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) act as catalysts in chemical reactions that break down O3 molecules in the ozone layer.Most countries have banned CFCs, and the ozone layer seems to be recovering.
16 Ozone “Hole” Over Antarctica Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Ozone “Hole” Over Antarctica
17 Chapter 22 Ozone and Ecosystems Section 2 Environmental Issues Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
18 Chapter 22 Pollution, continued Global Warming Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Pollution, continuedGlobal WarmingThe correlation of increasing atmospheric CO2 and rising global temperature suggests a cause-and-effect relationship.Considering several types of evidence, many scientists have concluded that increased CO2 levels have caused warmer surface temperatures on Earth.
19 Chapter 22 Global Warming Section 2 Environmental Issues Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
20 Chapter 22 Pollution, continued Acid Precipitation Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Pollution, continuedAcid PrecipitationCertain air pollutants cause acid precipitation, which harms or kills many organisms.
21 Chapter 22 Pollution, continued Land and Water Pollution Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Pollution, continuedLand and Water PollutionThe release of toxic chemicals, such as DDT, into the biosphere can impact ecosystems in many ways, especially when chemicals undergo biological magnification.
22 Biological Magnification of DDT Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Biological Magnification of DDT
23 Biological Magnification of Toxins Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Biological Magnification of ToxinsClick below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept
24 Ecosystem Disruption, continued Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Ecosystem Disruption, continuedExtinctionHuman impacts on the environment are causing an increasing number of extinctions.Important causes of extinctions are habitat destruction, the transfer of invasive species to new habitats, harvesting, and hunting.This loss of species has both known and unknown effects on ecosystems.
25 Ecosystem Disruption, continued Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Ecosystem Disruption, continuedEcosystem ImbalancesSpecies such as the sea otter that affect many other species in a community are called keystone species.
26 Chapter 22 Human Resource Use Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Human Resource UseCurrent levels of human resource use are probably not sustainable.
27 World Population Growth Patterns Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22World Population Growth Patterns
28 Chapter 22 Objectives Section 3 Environmental Solutions State the goals of conservation and restoration biology.Describe examples of efforts to protect species and their habitats.Summarize international strategies for protecting entire ecosystems.Discuss the roles of governments and laws in addressing environmental problems.List several things that individuals can do to help solve environmental problems.
29 Conservation and Restoration Biology Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Conservation and Restoration BiologyConservation biologists are concerned with identifying and maintaining ecosystems, while restoration biologists are usually involved with repairing badly damaged ecosystems.
30 Conservation and Restoration Biology, continued Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Conservation and Restoration Biology, continuedSpecies and HabitatsA bioindicator is a species that is especially sensitive to ecological change.
31 Conservation and Restoration Biology, continued Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Conservation and Restoration Biology, continuedCase Study: Saving the Whooping CranePopulations of many migratory birds, such as the whooping crane, are in decline because of human activities.However, some populations are recovering as a result of legal protection, breeding programs, habitat restoration, and international partnerships.
32 Protecting Ecosystems Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Protecting EcosystemsBiodiversity HotspotsInternational and cooperative efforts to preserve habitat and prevent extinctions include identifying biodiversity hotspots, making debt-for-nature swaps, and promoting ecotourism.
33 Chapter 22 Governments and Laws Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Governments and LawsEnvironmental problems can be addressed through the efforts of governments and laws.
34 Private Efforts and Cooperation Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Private Efforts and CooperationEnvironmental problems can be addressed through the combined efforts of governments, scientists, businesses, and individuals.
35 Conservation Case Study: The Everglades Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Conservation Case Study: The EvergladesThe Everglades restoration project is the most ambitious ecosystem-wide restoration project attempted in the United States.
36 Your Role in the Environment Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Your Role in the EnvironmentNo one can predict our environment’s future, but it is clear that individuals can make a difference in its fate.Thus, it is important for you, as an individual, to understand your role in the environment and to take responsibility for that role.
37 Chapter 22 Conservation Section 3 Environmental Solutions Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept