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Announcements Activity 1 due 1/30 Activity 1 due 1/30.

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Presentation on theme: "Announcements Activity 1 due 1/30 Activity 1 due 1/30."— Presentation transcript:

1 Announcements Activity 1 due 1/30 Activity 1 due 1/30

2 Announcement TA: Gina Schwartzmeier TA: Gina Schwartzmeier Office hour: Wednesday 11-12 (and by appointment) Office hour: Wednesday 11-12 (and by appointment) Office: N 140 Office: N 140 Email: HOLMSEN@WEB.DE Email: HOLMSEN@WEB.DE

3 Building Blocks of Form Theme Theme A melodic idea used as a building block of form. Thematic development: elaborating or varying a musical idea Example of thematic development: Beethoven’s fifth symphony

4 Medieval Period (c.500-1450) We know very little about music before ca. 850 (no musical notation) We know very little about music before ca. 850 (no musical notation) Medieval genres Medieval genres Chant (Gregorian chant or plainsong) Organum Motet

5 CHANT Liturgical -music for the church service Liturgical -music for the church service MASS (the most important ritual of Roman Catholic Church) encactment of last supper (communion) MASS (the most important ritual of Roman Catholic Church) encactment of last supper (communion) Two types of music Two types of music Ordinary - texts that do not change Proper - text for the mass that changes daily

6 CHANT HISTORY Legend of Pope Gregory the Great (rules 590-604) Legend of Pope Gregory the Great (rules 590-604)

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8 Pope Gregory I (c. 600)

9 The central question Music of the Roman church c. 680 Music of the Roman church c. 680 Transmitted to Frankish kingdom c. 754, with no musical notation (Adoption of Roman liturgy by Franks was part of desire to unify Frankish kingdom Transmitted to Frankish kingdom c. 754, with no musical notation (Adoption of Roman liturgy by Franks was part of desire to unify Frankish kingdom

10 Central question of chant Melodies were transmitted orally until c. 890. Therefore, what did the melodies originally sound like?

11 Chant notation Originally did not indicate pitch, only melodic direction (singers still had to know melodies by heart) Originally did not indicate pitch, only melodic direction (singers still had to know melodies by heart)

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13 Characteristics of chant Monophonic Monophonic No regular meter No regular meter

14 Text setting syllabic-one note per syllable syllabic-one note per syllable neumatic- several notes per syllable neumatic- several notes per syllable melismatic- many notes per syllable melismatic- many notes per syllable

15 Haec Dies For EASTER For EASTER monophonic texture monophonic texture Mainly conjunct motion Mainly conjunct motion responsorial form (soloist alternating with choir) responsorial form (soloist alternating with choir) Do any pitches stand out as being important? Which ones? Do any pitches stand out as being important? Which ones?

16 ORGANUM polyphonic texture (a voice added above the same chant) polyphonic texture (a voice added above the same chant)

17 Notre Dame School Dates: c. 1150-1220 Dates: c. 1150-1220 Important composers: Leonin and Perotin Important composers: Leonin and Perotin Different styles Different styles Sustained-note style (original chant held note under faster moving top line) VS. Discant style (notes moving together)

18 Notre Dame School Organum Haec dies (on the chant we just sang) Organum Haec dies (on the chant we just sang) Chant in the lower voice in slow notes Chant in the lower voice in slow notes Rhythm of the upper voice is not indicated in the notation Rhythm of the upper voice is not indicated in the notation

19 MOTET New texts added to organum (could be sacred or secular texts) New texts added to organum (could be sacred or secular texts) polytextual - multiple texts sung together polytextual - multiple texts sung together all notes rhythmic, in patterns all notes rhythmic, in patterns

20 MOTET O mittissima/Virgo/Haec Dies (13th c.) O mittissima/Virgo/Haec Dies (13th c.) Two texts simultaneously Two texts simultaneously Is the meter triple or duple? Is the meter triple or duple?

21 Sound of Medieval Music In what ways does it sound different from modern music? In what ways does it sound different from modern music?

22 Monasticism Daily cycle of prayer services, the first starting at 2 am (called the Daily Office or Divine Office. Daily cycle of prayer services, the first starting at 2 am (called the Daily Office or Divine Office. Usually vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Usually vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. Great centers of learning and culture Great centers of learning and culture

23 Hildegard of Bingen Lived 1098-1179 Lived 1098-1179 One of the few known composers in this period One of the few known composers in this period Various roles: Abbess, visionary, wrote poetry and plays. Various roles: Abbess, visionary, wrote poetry and plays.

24 Play of the Virtues Sung drama Sung drama About the struggle of good and evil for the soul About the struggle of good and evil for the soul Characters include charity, patience, humility, chastity, obedience, etc, and well as the soul Characters include charity, patience, humility, chastity, obedience, etc, and well as the soul Devil has a speaking. Devil has a speaking.

25 Play of the Virtues Style: Style: Originally monophonic Is it syllablic, melismatic, or neumatic? Wide range

26 Secular Music Travelling musicians: Goliards Travelling musicians: Goliards Troubadors,Trouveres, Troubaritz Troubadors,Trouveres, Troubaritz Courtly Love theme Unattainable woman Aspect of civilization (related to the cult of BVM)

27 Guillaume Machaut SONGS: SONGS: Polyphonic settings: Polyphonic settings: Follow forms of the poetry (patterns of sections) Follow forms of the poetry (patterns of sections) Puis qu’en oubli Puis qu’en oubli RONDEAUX A B aA ab A B


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