Presentation on theme: "The Church in the Second Century: The rise of Theology."— Presentation transcript:
The Church in the Second Century: The rise of Theology
Worship in the Late 1 st through the 2 nd Century By the end of the 1 st Century Meeting on the “Lord’s Day” in private homes. Celebrating Communion Reading Torah and the Letters of Paul Apostles and Presbyters for Leadership. 2 nd Century We see basilicas – or churches. Compilation of Gospels and importance of New Testament Texts. A formal liturgy begins to be adopted.
The Apostles Creed: Profession of Faith I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; I believe in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord: Who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary; suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried. He descended into hell; the third day He rose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting. Amen. Trinitarian but much more about the basic beliefs of Jesus’ Life.
Church Structure and organization. Church Structure Defined Bishops, priests (presbyters), and deacons. Apostolic Succession was from Bishop to Bishop – then to Priest. Bishops were in charge of decisions on liturgy and dealing with theological problems. Bishops and Presbyters were the official mediators of the sacraments – Communion and the Forgiveness of Sins. Jerusalem was the early center, but by the second century it becomes less important. We have some references to the importance of the Bishop of Rome. Bishop of Rome is cited when extra authority is needed in a case.
Rise of Theology 100 CE – Justin Martyr is born A Gentile from Judea, he studied many religions and systems of thought – and he was very well educated. He eventually came to be a Christian. He began using his educational background to show that Christianity was the “True Philosophy” Wrote “ Apologies” In ancient terms, an Apology is an account or reasons for a belief. Tried to show the world that Christianity was logical and worth following. Theology begins to emerge at this time: People began using Philosophy and other branches of study to better define and understand Christ
Some of the Theological Heresies Gnosticism: A mythological system of belief focusing on “Secret Wisdom ” of Jesus instead of the scripture. Secret Knowledge gets you to heaven. Jesus held the Secret Wisdom of how to be a “perfect man” Means, Jesus isn’t divine. Marcionism Began by a guy named Marcion. The belief that all aspects of Judaism – including the Old Testament Scriptures– should be abandoned. Thought that the wrathful God of the Israelites was in no way related to Jesus. He adopts an early New Testament Canon Gospel of Luke and Paul’s Letters Its one of the earliest canons we have. The Bishops lead the fight against them: Cite in their arguments: Scripture – not just the Gospel of Luke but from Matthew, Mark, and John too! They bring everything back to the teachings and tradition of the Apostles. These early heresies show us that already, in the Second Century, there is a fairly unified teaching about who Jesus is and what Christianity is all about.
Arianism Arianism is one heresy that was very widespread and difficult to combat. For Arius, Jesus was not Divine. He was the Son of God but was subordinated to the Father. The Father = the true God. The Son = a created sub- deity. Why is this a problem? John 14:28 John14:28