11 Vocal InterferencesExtraneous sounds or words that interrupt fluent speech:“uh,” “um”“you know,” “like”Place markersFillers
12 Spatial UsagePersonal space: the space that surrounds a person, moves with that person, and changes with the situation as well as moment to momentIntimate distance: up to 18”Personal distance: 18”-4’Social distance: 4’-12’Public distance: more than 12’
13 Spatial UseAcoustic space: area over which your voice or other sounds can be comfortably heardTerritory: space over which we claim ownershipArtifacts: objects we use to adorn our territory and communicate about our space
14 Personal Space at Work Your office Your desk A table in the cafeteria where you sit regularlyMicrosoft Photo
15 Color Influences Communication Yellow cheersandelevates moodsRed excitesandstimulatesBlue comfortsandsoothesIn someculturesblack suggestsmourningIn somecultureswhite suggestspurity
16 Self-Presentation Cues Physical AppearanceRace and genderFacial featuresSize and shape of bodyClothing and personal groomingBody art
17 Self-PresentationWhat message do you wish to send with your choice of clothing and personal grooming?Microsoft Photo
18 Use of Time Chronemics Time Orientation Monochronic Polychronic Past PresentFuture
19 Time How do we manage and react to others’ management of time? durationactivitypunctualityMicrosoft Photo
20 Use of Smell Olfactory Communication through: Perfume Cologne AromatherapyBody odorMicrosoft Photo
21 Cultural and Gender Variations Eye contactFacial expressionsGesturesTouchParalanguageSpaceSelf-presentation
22 Nonverbal SignalsVary from culture to cultureMicrosoft Photo
23 What does this symbol mean to you? In the United States it is a symbol for good jobIn Germany the number oneIn Japan the number fiveIn Ghana an insultIn Malaysia the thumb is used to point rather than a finger-Atlantic Committee for the Olympic Games
24 Improving Nonverbal Sending Skills Be mindful of your nonverbal behavior.Adapt nonverbal behaviors to your purpose.Adapt nonverbal behaviors to the situation.Align nonverbal and verbal communication.Make sure nonverbal cues do not distract from your message.Eliminate distracting nonverbal behaviors.
25 Improving Nonverbal Interpretation Skills Be mindful that most nonverbal cues do not have set meanings.Recognize culture, gender, and other diversity when interpreting nonverbal cues.Pay attention to all of the nonverbal cues and their relationship to the verbal message.Use the skill of perception checking.