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Chapter 10 The Eastern Hemisphere A.D

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 The Eastern Hemisphere A.D"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 The Eastern Hemisphere A.D. 1000-1500

2 The East From 1000 to 1500, connections between Africa, Asia, and Europe increased dramatically Though they had different cultures, all three continents were linked by a complex pattern of trade routes

3 Major Trade Routes Four major trade routes connected the continents during this era: The Silk Road The Indian Ocean trade network The Trans-Saharan caravan route The Mediterranean trade network

4 The Silk Road The Silk routes across Asia to the Mediterranean basin
It was used heavily by 100 B.C., and continued to carry trade up to the 17th Century


6 Indian Ocean Trade Network
Although many Asian goods traveled along the Silk Road, just as many traveled by sea. Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean Ships linked the coastal areas of East Africa, Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India, SE Asia, and China


8 The Trans-Saharan Caravan Routes
By 2500 B.C. the Saharan region had begun to dry up, becoming a major obstacle for travelers Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa Caravan routes had been established to navigate the Sahara by 1000 A.D. Salt from the Saharan region was traded for gold from the Niger River Basin


10 The Mediterranean Trade Network
The Mediterranean Sea connected Europe to the other trade networks Europe became connected to the Byzantine and Muslim Empires Through those empires, Europe was connected with Russia, India, and China

11 The Mediterranean Trade Network
Mediterranean trade was dominated by Italian merchants These merchants helped to bring knowledge and learning back to Europe, beginning a period called the Renaissance


13 Other Trade Networks Northern and Eastern Europe were connected to the other trade routes thanks to the Black Sea Rivers and seas were the usual method of trade in Western Europe The lands of SE Asia were connected to China through the South China Sea


15 Continental Interaction
By 1000 A.D., the Eastern Hemisphere was highly connected thanks to trade The three continents shared goods, ideas, technology, and religions Trade had increased for two reasons: Improved transportation Peace and stability

16 Continental Interaction
Asia was very peaceful and stable during this period because of the power of two empires: The Chinese Empire The Abbasid Empire

17 Continental Interaction
Although the continents traded a wide variety of goods, major products included: Gold from W. Africa Spices from India and Indian ocean region Porcelain from China and Persia Textiles from India, China, the Mid-East, and later Europe Amber from the Baltic region



20 Continental Interaction
Trade encouraged the spread of technology: Crops began to be traded: wheat, rice, and especially sugar cane came from India Waterwheels and windmills came from the middle east

21 Continental Interaction
Paper from China through the Muslim world to Byzantium and Western Europe Improved navigational charts and lateen sail came from the Indian Ocean Region

22 Continental Interaction
Religions spread over the centuries: Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan Hinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast Asia Islam from the Mideast to West Africa, Central and Southeast Asia

23 Cultural Interaction Spread of religions across the hemisphere
Buddhism from China to Korea and Japan Hinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast Asia Islam into West Africa, Central and Southeast Asia Printing and paper money from China

24 Continental Interaction
Some interactions had negative effects: Disease traveled along trade routes In 1347 A.D. the bubonic plague, better known as the Black Death, reached Europe and killed millions The Black Death came from ports along the Black Sea, carried by Italian merchant ships


26 Continental Interaction
Another negative interaction was the beginning of the African slave trade Africans were traded for goods in W. Africa and moved along the Saharan caravan routes In 1441, the Portuguese arrived on the Atlantic coast, beginning the slave trade that resulted in millions of Africans being sent to the Americas


28 Early Japan Japan is off the Asian coast, east of China, separated by the Sea of Japan It is in close proximity to China and Korea Japan is a mountainous archipelago (group of islands), with 4 main islands

29 Early Japan Japan adopted many ideas from China, and changed them to make them uniquely Japanese: Pictographic writing Architecture Confucianism and Buddhism


31 Early Japan Chinese influences merged with Japanese traditions to mold Japan’s culture Buddhism became Japan’s state religion in 594 Buddhism coexisted with Japan’s ancient religion: Shinto

32 Shinto Shinto is unique to Japan and was the early state religion and coexistance with Buddhism It was often associated with the Imperial family and worshipped the emperor The religion has no holy book, but emphasizes ritual cleanliness and many ceremonies in daily life

33 Shinto Important aspects of Shinto include:
Shrines at natural geographic locations Worshipping forces of nature Loyalty to family and praying to ancestors

34 Medieval Japan Kyoto became the Japanese capital in 794, with the start of the Heian Period The Heian broke off contacts with China By 1000, Japan was completely isolated from China and Korea The Heian government broke down due to incompetent aristocrats


36 Medieval Japan The Heian were replaced by the power of local princes
These princes were protected by warriors called samurai

37 Medieval Japan In 1192, a military government called a shogunate was established Shoguns controlled land and the local clans that lived on them Their system was very similar to European feudalism

38 Axum In 300 A.D. the kingdom of Axum gained control of the Red Sea trade routes An Axum army conquered Kush in 350, securing their control of East Africa

39 Axum Axum became a Christian kingdom after 324 A.D, when missionaries came to their ports The Axumites were known for their stelae: large, decorated stone columns built to mark royal tombs


41 Axum By 800 A.D., Arab merchants across the Red Sea had begun to control most of the trade passing through Without trade fueling their economy, Axum quickly declined

42 Zimbabwe In 1300 A.D., the nation of Zimbabwe had developed in southern Africa Zimbabwe had developed along the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers The nation centered around their capital of Great Zimbabwe The people of Zimbabwe were efficient farmers and raised vast herds of cattle


44 Zimbabwe The civilization declined by 1450, when Great Zimbabwe was abandoned because of two serious problems: A shortage of salt The exhaustion of grazing and timber resources

45 West African Kingdoms By 800 A.D., kingdoms had grown to dominate trade in West Africa They all developed south of the Sahara, in close proximity to the Niger River Three major kingdoms developed one after the other: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai


47 Ghana Ghana grew prosperous from the gold and salt trade in West Africa Salt was necessary for flavoring and preserving foods This trade was taxed by the king of Ghana, who was also a religious and military leader


49 Ghana From , local chiefs maintained authority by paying taxes to the King In the 11th Century, Muslim armies from North Africa invaded and had conquered Ghana by 1076

50 Mali The empire of Mali was established by 1200 A.D., where Ghana had been Mali was expanded by their great king, Mansa Musa He governed efficiently through provincial governors Numerous mosques were built under his rule


52 Mali Timbuktu became the most important city of the empire
It was the home of many Muslim doctors, scholars, and merchants The city became a center of learning and trade The city was lost to nomadic warriors in 1433

53 Songhai By 1500 Mali had fallen and been replaced by the kingdom of Songhai The Muslim leader Sonni Ali recaptured Timbuktu and built the new kingdom His new kingdom was more centralized

54 Songhai Kings of Songhai replaced traditional provincial rulers with royal appointees Taxes, trade, and gold made Songhai a wealthy kingdom, like Ghana and Mali

55 Next Chapter…. The Western Hemisphere

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