2 Landforms of Africa South of the Sahara Africa has two major land typeLowlands in the north and westHighlands in the south and eastThe highest mountain is Mount KilimanjaroComes from Swahili means shining mountain
4 The Sahara Worlds largest desert Very few people are able to live here It is hot and dry with very little rainfallMost people who live in this region are nomads.
5 The SaharaHas historically been a trade route for nomadic traders on camelbackOne of the most populous areas of this region is Cairo, EgyptIt is an important trade center because it is connected to Asia by the Sinai PeninsulaSuez Canal allows transport through the peninsula.The Nile River (the world’s longest river) provides another important waterway for transporting people, goods, and irrigation
7 The Kalahari The Kalahari covers part of the Southern tip of Africa Pressure from increasing populations, the need for firewood, and the constant overgrazing of animals plagues this region.
8 The Sahel Strip of semi-arid land south of the Sahara They are battling severe problems with desertification (the expansion of the desert)The wind coming off the Sahara blows away the topsoil leaving a barren land. As the desert expands people are unable to grow food.Much of the desertification is caused by over farming, over grazing, and clear cutting.
9 The region depends on farming so it can be devastated by bad weather In the 70’s they suffered a drought where almost 200,000 people died.Many people gave up farming and moved to the cities, but the cities are too poor to accommodate the populationMany people live without electricity, running water, or proper sewers.
12 The Savanna Tropical grasslands with scattered trees Home to amazing wildlifeMost famous savanna is the SerengetiIncludes parts of Kenya, where they rely on land for their livelihood1/3 land is grazing land for cattle, goats, and sheepMany Kenyans make a living growing coffee and tea
14 RainforestWestern Africa is home to tropical rain forest (dense evergreen forest with an annual rainfall of at least 60 inches)Rainforest has shrunk because of deforestation and destructive farmingPart of the rainforest is in Ghana and it also covers 2/3 of the Democratic Republic of CongoThese areas are also losing wildlife due to extinction (a species no longer exists)
16 RiftsThe tectonic plates of Africa have been pulling apart for 50 million yearsThis has caused steep walled valleys called Rifts.The great Rift Valley stretches from the Red Sea to MozambiqueThe Great Rift Valley in East Africa, is gradually getting bigger because it is pulled away from the rest of the continent.Eventually this will cause East Africa to become an island.
17 Waterways of AfricaParts of the Rift Valley have formed huge lakes such as Lake TanganyikaLake Victoria Africa’s largest lake lies between two rift valleys on the borders of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya.
18 Great Lakes Rwanda and the Congo are a part of the Great Lakes region 15 lakes in this regionLake Victoria is the largest lakeLake Tanganyika is the deepest lake
19 RiversThe Nile flows northward out of the mountains of central Africa and is the world’s longest river.The Zambezi river features powerful waterfalls including Victoria Falls.Congo River is the 2nd longest river in Africa
20 Many ClimatesAfrica has four major climate zones (desert, semiarid, tropical, and equatorial)Desert- North of the Sahara to Namib (have little rain, high temperatures, and few plants and animals.Semiarid- south of the Sahara in the Sahel. This area is experiencing desertification (a process where deserts spread) drought and overgrazing cause this.
21 Tropical- this extends from the semiarid areas to the equator Tropical- this extends from the semiarid areas to the equator. There is a rainy season for six months and six dry months.Savannas are often found in both the semiarid and tropical areas. They are flat grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs. Many animals live on these lands.Equatorial- has two rainy seasons and two brief dry seasons and is located near the equator. Has high temperatures and inches of rain per year.