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**Presenting and Analyzing Data**

Tables, Charts, Diagrams, Models, and Graphs are the most effective way of presenting the results of an experiment.

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**GRAPHS Types of Graphs:**

Linear (Line)- good to use when you are trying to show a trend. A line graph is best used to show how one variable changes with respect to another.

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GRAPHS 2. Bar- used to show easy to read, unconnected bars which represent a quantity of information. The quantities represented by the bars can then be compared and contrasted.

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GRAPHS 3. Circle (Pie)- is used to show parts of a whole. Many times circle graphs show percentages of a total.

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**Parts of a Graph Most graphs have to be constructed from a DATA TABLE.**

DATA TABLE- presents data in a neat and organized form. X axis (horizontal)- independent variable. Y axis (vertical)- dependent variable. ORIGIN- the point where X and Y axis meet, (0,0) coordinates.

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**How to Construct a GRAPH**

To construct a Linear Graph you must: Locate and mark the ORIGIN in the lower left corner of graph paper. Scale your graph appropriately dependent upon the quantitative information presented in the data table (sometimes you may skip lines to scale your graph). Number the X and Y axis.

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**Constructing a GRAPH (continued)**

3. Plot the coordinates from the Data Table with an X or a point. 4. Connect the coordinates with a straight edge (ruler) to insure the precision of the data being graphed. 5. Check your graph to see if the graph and the data matches.

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**Constructing GRAPHS (continued)**

In the case of a Bar Graph: Use the same principles used to set up a Linear Graph. Make sure the width of the bars are even on the graph. Tops of the bars should sit at the corresponding point relative to the data on the Y-axis.

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**Details for Constructing a PIE GRAPH**

Calculating and setting up your PIE GRAPH: To change percents to degrees on the data table, move the decimal two (2) places to the left. Multiply these numbers in decimal form by 360. Record this answer, this is the number of degrees that corresponds to the percentage on the Data Table.

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**Construction of PIE GRAPH**

Drawing the Pie Graph: Place protractor on paper and mark the center hole, 0 degree and 180 degree mark. Hold protractor in place and draw an arc from the 0 degree (left) to the 180 degree (right) mark. You should have a semicircle. Flip the protractor upside down, line up center hole and the 0 degree and 180 degree marks. Draw another arc. This should be a perfect circle.

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**Slices of the PIE To get the Pie slices you must:**

Use the straight edge of the protractor to draw the radius from the center hole to the 0 degree mark. Use the number of degrees from the 1st percentage on the Data Table, mark it and draw a line from the center hole to the mark with the straight edge of the protractor. Rotate the protractor to the new radius because this is your new 0 degree mark. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until all percentages are complete. ALL LINES MUST BE STRAIGHT!

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**Finishing the PIE Once the Pie Graph is constructed you must:**

Put the corresponding PERCENTAGE in the slice of the Pie, not the DEGREE! You may color or shade respective slices to give your Pie distinction. Be PREPARED to ANALYZE your GRAPH in words.

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**SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT**

Temperature- measures how hot or how cold something is. Units to measure TEMPERATURE: 1. CELSIUS 2. FAHRENHEIT 3. KELVIN All measurements for temperature are taken in degrees.

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**Temperature Conversion Formulas**

To convert to: o o C = .55 ( F – 32 ) Remember when o o converting, put what you F = 1.8 X C have INTO THE FORMULA o o to find what you need. C = K – o o K = C

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**Examples of Conversion to CELSIUS**

o o 50 F = ___ C o o To get C you must subtract 32 from F (do everything in parentheses first). Next, multiply this number by .55 to get your answer in degrees Celsius. o o o C=.55( F-32) = .55(50-32) = .55X18 = 9.9 C

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**Examples of Conversion to FAHRENHEIT**

o o 2. 50 C = ___ F o o To find F you must first multiply 1.8 X C, then add 32 to get your answer in degrees Fahrenheit. o o o F=1.8X C+32 =1.8X50+32 =90+32 =122 F

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**Conversion to KELVIN o o 3. 50 C = ____ K o o**

To convert to K you ADD to C. The result is in degrees Kelvin. o o o K = C = = K

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**Conversion from KELVIN**

o o K = ____ C o To convert from K you have to SUBTRACT from degree Kelvin. Your answer will be in degree Celsius. o o o C= K = = C

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**Actual Facts (TEMPERATURE)**

o o Boiling Point of Water =212 F or 100 C o o Freezing Point of Water = 32 F or 0 C o Body Temperature = F ABSOLUTE ZERO is the temperature at which matter ceases to move (FREEZES). This is ZERO degrees Kelvin.

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