Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Database"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Database CISChapter 1Sungchul Hong
2 Database SystemThe most important development in the field of software engineering.Database serve as the foundation for considerable progress in the basic science fields ranging from computing to biology.
3 Introduction Database DBMS (Database Management System) A collection of related data.DBMS (Database Management System)The software that manages and controls access tot the database.Database applicationA program that interacts with the database at some point in its execution.
4 Examples of Databases Supermarket Credit card InventoryCustomer serviceCredit cardBooking a ticket at the travel agentsUsing the local libraryUniversity
5 Traditional File-Based Systems Each program defines and manages its own data.Separation and isolation of dataDuplication of dataData dependenceIncompatibility of filesFixed queries of application program
6 Database ApproachA shared collection of logically related data, and a description of this data, designed to meet the information needs of an organization.System catalog (data dictionary)Program-data independence.
7 File-Based System Data entry & report Sales Files File handling routinesData entry & reportFile definitionSales Files
8 The Database Management System (DBMS) A software system that enables users to define, create, maintain, and control access to the database.Data Definition Language(DDL)Data Manipulation Language (DML)Structured Query Language (SQL)ViewsLevel of security, customization, provide consistent structure
9 Components of the DBMS Environment HardwareClient-server architectureBackend, front endSoftwareDBMS, application programs, SQLDataOperational data, meta dataProcedureInstructions and rulesPeople
10 Roles in the Database Environment Data Administrator (DA)Responsible for the management of the data resource including database planning, development and maintenance of standards, policies, and procedures, and conceptual/logical database design.Database Administrator (DBA)-more technicalResponsible for the physical realization of the database, including physical database design and implementation, security and integrity of the application users.
11 Roles in the Database Environment (2) Database DesignerLogical database designerIdentifying the data, relationship between the data, and the constraints on the data.Business rules.Physical database designerMapping the logical database design into a set of tables and integrity constraints.Selecting specific storage structuresDesigning security measures required on the data
12 Roles in the Database Environment (3) Application DeveloperProvide the required functionality for the end-users.End-UsersNaïve usersSophisticated users.
14 Advantages of DBMS Control of data redundancy Data consistency More information from the same amount of dataSharing of dataImproved data integrityImproved securityEnforcement of standards
15 Advantages of DBMS (2) Economy of scale Balance of confliction requirementsImproved data accessibility and responsivenessIncreased productivityImproved maintenance through data independenceIncreased concurrencyImproved backup and recovery services
16 Disadvantages of DBMS Complexity Size Cost of DBMS Additional hardware costsCost of conversionPerformanceHigher impact of a failure
17 History of DBMS Apollo moon-landing project (1960s) GUAM (Generalized Update Access Method)Hierarchical structureIMS (Information Management System) (mid 1960s)Serial storagedevice (Tape recorder)IDS (Integrated Data Store) (mid 1960s)Network DBMSCODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages)
18 History of DBMS DBTG (Data Base Task Group) – 1967 Relational Model – E. F. Codd, 1970RSQLDB2, SQL/DS, OracleINGRES II, Informix, Access, FoxPro, Paradox, Interbase, and R:BaseER model – Chen, 1979Semantic data modelingObject-Oriented DBMS, Object-Relational DBMS