4 parallel dialect simulate widespread revolution nonsense sites New VocabularyNew word or phraseEnglish MeaningArabic Meaningparallelextending in the samedirectionبشكل متوازيdialectvariety of a language spoken by people in a geographical areaلهجات مختلفةsimulateassume the likeness ofتقليد او تظاهرwidespreadover a large areaمنتشرrevolutionbig changeتغير كبيرnonsensewithout meaningبلا معنىsiteslocationsمواقع
5 Scan the topic to find the answers of the following questions Before reading Page 8Scan the topic to find the answers of the following questionsTo scan means to read quickly to find specific information.
6 Before reading Answer these questions: Paragraph (1)1. What was used in Greece to relate the news of the fall of Troy?a chain of fires on mountaintops.2. What did native people in the Americas use to transmit messages?smoke from fires.
7 3. What did native people developed? They developed a code—in which certain combinations of smoke rising had specialmeanings. For example, two parallel columns of smoke indicated the successful return of a war party.
8 Paragraph (2) 4. What did Cyrus, an ancient Persian ruler, establish? lines of signal towers.5. What was the idea of signals towers?People with powerful voices shouted a message to the next tower, and in this way, news and information was passed on through the kingdom
9 6. How did people (native) in central Africa use the drum? The sender uses a drum that can produce a high or low tone. Because the local dialectalternates in these tones, the sender is able to simulate speech with the drums.
10 Paragraph (3)7. In modern time, Do people still use the ancient ways for communications?No, they do not. They use new methods.8. When was the first message?It was in 1971.9. What did these letters mean “QWERTYUIOP?This is just the top row of keys on an English-language keyboard. Tomlinson was just testing out the system and using a nonsense message
11 Paragraph (4) 10. Who was Ray Tomlinson ? one of a group of scientists who were working on developing better computers.11. What did the scientists do?scientists were able to send a message to a “mailbox” on the computer on their site.12. Did Ray Tomlinson invent the sign? ExplainYes, he did. To identify messages that were headed out of the local machine to the more distant ones.
12 Paragraph (5)13. How was the number of people in the 20 and 21 centuries?In 20 century there were 263 million boxes. In 21 century has grown to over 2 billion.14. What do you think about the function of and cell phones messages in the future?The functions of services in the future will become more and more diversified. And text messaging on cell phones is also increasing.
13 After Reading Page 9 the Stone Age 1. Complete the following sentences about the reading.1. People have shown a need to communicate with one another since ____________.the Stone Age2. When Native Americans saw two columns of smoke, ___________they knew that a war party was returning and that it was successful3. Although drums are used in Central Africa to communicate messages, only a few non-natives ____________.can understand the drum language
14 starting a revolution in communication 4. When Tomlinson sent his first message, he wasn’t thinking of ____________.starting a revolution in communication5. Although only began in the 1970s, by the end of the 20th century, ____________.there were 263 million boxes6. Nowadays, millions of people are used to ____________.being in constant touch with people who are long distances away
15 Discussion Page 81. Think about how you communicate with diff erent people.2. Work in groups. Make notes in the chart below.3. Use your notes to talk about communication in class.4. Which are the most common and most effective ways? Why?
16 Ways I communicate Advantages Disadvantages With friendsWith relativesWith otherpeople who livefar awayText messagesFast and easy to useCost a lot of moneyCell phonesYou can call in anywhere and available to everyoneCost a lot of moneyIt doesn’t cost a lot of moneyYou need to be in a place that has a hot spot (wireless connection)