Presentation on theme: "Nationally Recognized Seven Areas of Concern for Migrant Students"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nationally Recognized Seven Areas of Concern for Migrant Students OME -- WORKING DRAFT#5 (IN PROGRESS) FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES ONLY - MARCH 18, 2005Lesson #3: Migrant children are thought to be at high risk of school failure due to sevenareas of concern that arise out of the educational problems associated with the migrantlifestyle.The four States in the pilot project (i.e.• Arizona, Michigan. Pennsylvania, and Texas) spentconsiderable time and effort in identifying the conditions (directly related to the migrantlifestyle) that prevent migrant children from performing well in reading, mathematics, or tostay in school and graduate. For the purposes of the pilot project, these conditions are called"concerns." Such concerns were identified in all of the States with extensive input fromindividuals through strategies that included, but were not limited to: web-based surveys,teleconferences, focus groups. consultant services, and the review of existing data. For eachof the concerns. the States then developed a number of draft "indicators" (i.e., a measure thatfurther defines and verifies that a particular concern actually exists for migrant children).On the basis of this work. seven common "areas of concern" emerged and are thought to beimportant for all States to initially consider in the early stages of conducting a comprehensiveneeds assessment. A full discussion of the seven common areas of concern, as well as theirconnection to the migrant lifestyle, follows.The comprehensive needs assessment model used in the pilot project distinguishes between "needs" atthree levels. Level needs focus on service recipients (e.g., students), level 2 needs focus service providers(e.g.. Staff of a school or the project). level 3 needs focus on system issues (e.g., policies, climate,availability and use of resources). The pilot project is examining level 1 needs only, as identifying the"special educational" needs of migrant children and the intervention to address those needs are perhaps themost difficult aspects of a comprehensive needs assessment However, eventually, a "comprehensive"needs assessment should examine the needs of the program at the other two levels. For example, the needfor staff training to implement a new program, the need for parental involvement to effectively support aprogram. The need for a change in district policy to ensure student records are exchanged in a timelyfashion, etc. In general, level 2 and level 3 needs arise as a result of the need to implement theinterventions that are selected to address the level needs of the service recipients (e.g., in the case of theMEP-migrant students).Emerging Framework of the “Special Educational Needs” of Migrant Children - Office of Migrant Education (OME)
2 Roots of the Seven Areas of Concern Many migrant workers share some common lifestyle characteristics that pose significant challenges in their livesHigh levels of migration (mobility)Moving from and to other countriesLow wages (working poor)Low levels of educationIsolation from the larger community due to cultural adjustment problems and language differencesROOTS OF THE SEVEN AREAS OF CONCERNThe defining characteristic of a migrant worker is "migration." Migration means movingfrom one country, place or locality to another. Migrant workers move regularly in order tofind temporary or seasonal work in agriculture or fishing.Migrant workers share a number of common lifestyle characteristics that pose significantchallenges in their lives.They experience relatively high levels of migration (mobility)They often move from and to other countries (especially Mexico)They are working poor (as a result of the low wages they are paid for theirlabor)• They usually have low levels of educational attainment• They often feel isolated from the larger community due to culturaladjustment problems and linguistic differences (between the U.S. and theircountry of origin)The lifestyle characteristics listed above create special educational problems for children whomove with migrant workers.• For school-age children, migration means changing schools, teachers, andcurricula. It means missing a substantial number of days of school. Schoolchanges also diminish a student's sense of belonging at school and the extentto which students participate in the classroom and in co-curricular activities.• Children of migrant workers often have limited opportunities to develop theEnglish language as their parents are not proficient in English. The situationis often exacerbated by the Binacional residency patterns o today's migrantworkers in that migrant children often spend considerable amounts of times incountries (and schools) in which the English language is not commonly used.• Low levels of education and low socio-economic status of migrant workerscombine to limit the amount and quality of education support that can beoffered in the home.• Low paying temporary and seasonal jobs in agriculture or fishing do not comewith health insurance or wages that ensure adequate access to health care foryoung children and adolescents.• As temporary residents in many locales, fear of being deemed an outsider oroutright discrimination limits access to services to which migrant workers andtheir children are entitled.Migrant children are thought, therefore, to be at high risk of school failure due to seven areasof concern that arise out of the educational problems associated with the migrant lifestyle.
3 1. Educational Continuity Because migrant students often are forced to move during the regular school year, students tend to experience a lack of educational continuity.Migrant students experience differences in:curriculumacademic standardshomework policiesclassroom routinescourse placement, etc.SEVEN AREAS OF CONCERNEducational ContinuityHigh mobility rates often mean that migrant students are forced to make non promotionalschool changes during the regular school year.Such moves result in a lack of educational continuity for migrant students(e.g., migrant students experience differences in curricula, academicstandards, homework policies, classroom routines, course placements, etc.).
4 Consequences of Lack of Educational Continuity Students who change high schools even once are less than half as likely to graduate.Over a period of six years, students who have moved more than three times can fall a full academic year behind other students.The educational consequences of diminished educational continuity are welldocumented. Students who change high schools even once are less than halfas likely as stable students to graduate from high school (Hartman, 2002).Not surprisingly, the negative effects of educational discontinuity are evenmore daunting when viewed over time. Over a period of six years, studentswho have moved more than three times can fall a full academic year behindstable students.Given the negative effects of such mobility (and that for migrant children themoves are necessitated by economic factors not associated with positivechange for the family or student), efforts to ameliorate the effects of curriculaincoherence are needed to strengthen education continuity.
5 2. Instructional Time: Mobility also impacts the amount of time students spend in classand their attendancepatterns.2. Instructional Time –Research has documented that increases in instructional time willconsistently produce increases in student achievement when staff use thistime effectively (Moore, Funkhouser, 1990).
6 Instructional TimeSuch decreases in the time students spend engaged in learning leads to lower levels of achievement.Ways to ameliorate the impact of family mobility and delays in enrollment procedures are essential.Unfortunately. the converse isalso true; decreases in the time students are exposed to instruction in asubject will lead to lower levels of achievement in that subject. To the extentthat migrant children are missing days of school (and/or extended timeopportunities) due to their family's mobility and/or delays in schoolenrollment procedures, the less migrant students will achieve academically.
7 3. School EngagementMigrant students are frequently faced with adjustments to new school setting, making new friends, and social acceptance challenges, which are generally grouped asbehavioral,emotional andcognitive(based on Fredricks, Blumenfeldand Paris, 2003)3. School Engagement –Mobile migrant students also experience difficulties adjusting to new schoolsettings, making new friends, and fitting in socially in a new school situation.Fredricks, Blumenfeld, and Paris (2003) defined three types of schoolengagement-behavioral, emotional, and cognitive, as excerpted below:
8 School EngagementBehavioral engagement focuses on the opportunities for participation, including academic, social or extracurricular activities.It is considered a crucial factor in positive academic outcomes and preventing school dropout.Behavioral engagement draws on the idea of participation includinginvolvement in academic, social, or extracurricular activities; and isconsidered crucial for achieving positive academic outcomes and preventingdropping out of school. Behavioral engagement has been defined in severalways and includes positive conduct (such as following rules, adhering toclassroom norms, and the absence of disruptive behaviors such as skippingschool or getting into trouble), participation in classroom learning andacademic tasks (e.g., homework). It also includes such behaviors aspersistence, effort, attention, and asking questions. Finally, it focuses onparticipation in school-related activities such as athletics or schoolgovernance.
9 School EngagementEmotional engagement emphasizes school’s appeal for the student.Positive and negative reactions to teachers, classmates, academic materials, and school in general determine whether or not ties are created.Such responses influence identification with the school and a sense of belonging and feeling valued.Emotional engagement draws on the idea of appeal. It includes positive andnegative reactions to teachers, classmates, academics, school, and ispresumed to create ties to the institution and influence willingness to doschool work. This dimension is often conceptualized as identification withthe school, including a sense of belonging, feeling important to the school,and valuing, or an appreciation of success in school-related outcomes.
10 School EngagementCognitive engagement hinges on investment in learning and may be a response to expectations, relevance, and cultural connections.Cognitive engagement draws on the idea of investment; it includes beingthoughtful, willing to exert the necessary effort for comprehension ofcomplex ideas and mastery of difficulty skills. It also encompasses apsychological investment in learning, a desire to go beyond the requirementsof school, and a preference for challenge.
11 Without engagement, students may be at risk for school failure. Migrant students need avenues that ensure they are valued and have the opportunities that more stable students have.In essence, Fredricks, Blumenfeld, and Paris posit that "the many dimensionsof engagement help explain how children behave, feel, and think in school."And, research indicates that if a student does not remain engaged in class andin school, (s) he may be at risk for school failure.
12 4. English Language Development English language development (ELD) is critical for academic success.In the school setting, ELD focuses on the literacy skills applicable to content area learning.4. English Language Development-The complexity of language, especially when a child has to use it forlearning complex academic subjects, has long been recognized byresearchers concerned with the education of language minority students. Ofparticular importance is the ability to use language in school subject matterlearning (i.e., cognitive academic language proficiency). For many migrantchildren, gaining "academic" English language proficiency is necessary forschool success.
13 English Language Development Since many migrant students have a home language other than English,migrant programs must find avenues to ameliorate the difficulties faced by migrant students in ELD, due to their unique lifestylewhile not supplanting Title III program activities.
14 5. Educational Support in the Home Home environment is often associated with a child’s success in school, reflecting exposure to reading materials, a broad vocabulary, and educational games and puzzles.Such resources reflect parent educational background and socio-economic status.5. Education Support in the Home-Many factors found in the home environment are associated with thelikelihood of a child's success in school.Status variables such as socio-economic status, family income, parents' levelof education describe who parents are and the resources they have availableto support academic achievement.Dynamic (or process) variables such as reading to a child, taking children tothe library, helping with homework describe what parents do in the home tosupport academic achievement. In contrast to the status variables, dynamicvariables may be more amenable to manipulation through improving homeprocesses or offering supplement school services.While low socio-economic status, limited English proficiency, and limitededucational attainment often limit migrant parents' ability to help theirchildren prepare for and participate in school, efforts must be made to increase,improve, and, where necessary, supplement effective education support inthe home.
15 Educational Support in the Home While many migrant parents value education for their children, they may not always know how to support their children in a manner consistent with school expectations or have the means to offer an educationally rich home environment.Efforts to inform families are crucial.
16 6. HealthGood health is a basic need that migrant students often do not attain.The compromised dental and nutritional status of migrant children is well documented.6. Health-Good health is essential for the well-being of migrant farm workers' childrenand directly affects their educational performance (Huang, 1993). A numberof researchers have documented the compromised dental and nutritionalstatus of migrant children. Published reports also document that migrantchildren have (1) higher proportions of existing acute and chronic healthproblems, and (2) higher childhood and infant mortality rates than their non-migrantpeers (Weathers, et al, 2003, Huang, 1993).
17 HealthThey have higher proportions of acute and chronic health problems and there are higher childhood and infant mortality rates than those experienced by their non-migrant peers (Huang, 1993).
18 HealthMigrant children are at greater risk than other children due to occupation-related issues like pesticide poisoning, farm injuries, and heat-related illness.Migrant children are at greater risk than other children of developing healthproblems due to (1) occupation-related issues like pesticide poisoning, farminjuries, and heat-related illnesses, and (2) poverty-related issues likemalnutrition, parasitic infestations, respiratory diseases, and acute dentalproblems (Huang, 1993).
19 HealthThey are also at risk for by poverty-related health issues like malnutrition, parasitic infestations, respiratory diseases, and acute dental problems.
20 HealthThey are more likely to be uninsured and have difficulties with health care access.Families often need assistance in addressing health problems that interfere with the student’s ability to learn.In addition, migrant families are more likely to be uninsured and experiencedifficulties in accessing health care because of the expense, languagebarriers, lack of awareness of services, and cultural barriers (Ruducha, 1994).Uninsured children are less likely than insured children to have a relationshipwith a primary care physician, which makes it less likely that they willreceive preventative and primary care services and have access to acute carewhen they are ill. Healthy children miss fewer days of school, are moreattentive, and are better able to take advantage of educational opportunities.Children who are insured are more likely to receive regular care, reducingthe likelihood of serious or recurring illnesses (GAO, 1997).Some migrant projects currently offer a health component that emphasizesremediating health problems that interfere with the student's ability to learnand are not available through existing community resources (e.g., emergencymedical and dental treatment, physical examinations).
21 7. Access to ServicesNewcomer status and home languages other than English often decrease access to educational and educationally-related services to which migrant children and their families are entitled.7. Access to Services –The delivery and receipt of all educational and educationally-related servicesto which migrant children are entitled will be required to successfullyaddress the needs of migrant children.Newcomer status and limited English proficiency is likely to decreasemigrant families' awareness of other Federal, State, and local services in thecommunity they may need and be entitled.
22 Access to ServicesSince they are not viewed as permanent residents, services become more difficult to obtain.Newcomer status, limited English proficiency, and acculturation issues may work to inhibit theassertiveness often needed to request or demand services.In other situations. local officials may decide not to offer services becausemigrant families are not seen as permanent residents.
23 Seven Areas of Concern: Educational ContinuityInstructional TimeSchool EngagementEnglish Language DevelopmentEducational Support in the HomeHealthAccess to ServicesReview of 7 Areas of Concern