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Trans-regional Trade Networks

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Presentation on theme: "Trans-regional Trade Networks"— Presentation transcript:

1 Trans-regional Trade Networks
Cultural, Technological, and Biological Exchanges, 600 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.

2 Networks of Communication & Exchange
Large scale empires = increase in long distance trade Developed from a demand for raw materials and luxury goods Land and Water routes link regions of Eastern Hemisphere Alongside trade, there was an exchange of: People Technology Religious and Cultural Beliefs Food Crops Domesticated Animals Disease Pathogens

3 Networks of Communication & Exchange

4 Long Distance Trade Two developments lead to increased trade:
Building of roads Large imperial states Major Trade Routes: The Silk Road Trans-Saharan Route (Gold Road) Indian Ocean Trade Routes Mediterranean Sea Lanes Turquoise Road

5 The Silk Road Trade in silk grew under the Han Dynasty in the first and second centuries C.E. Central Asian herders ran caravans linking trade between China and urban areas in Mesopotamia. The domestication of pack animals such as the horse, oxen, and mule allowed goods to be transported long distances The introduction of new technologies such as yokes, saddles, and stirrups also increased the distances goods could travel

6 The Silk Road Central Asian military technologies like the stirrup were exported east and west. This significantly impacted the conduct of war at this time.

7 The Silk Road The 7000 mile route spanned China, Central Asia, Northern India, and the Roman Empire. It connected the Yellow River Valley to the Mediterranean Sea

8 The Silk Road The Chinese traded their silk with the Indians for precious stones and metals such as jade, gold, and silver, and the Indians would trade the silk with the Roman Empire Buddhism spread from India to China along the route

9 Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
Becomes known as the “Gold Road”:

10 Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
Early Saharan trade patterns included the exchange of salt and palm oil. During the days of the Roman Empire, North Africa also supplied Italy with olives, wheat and wild animals. Later, during the African empires of Mali and Ghana, gold became the major trade commodity out of Africa (followed later by slaves)

11 Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
Geography of Sahara desert made early trade difficult Introduction of camel from Arabia sometime between 1st and 3rd centuries C.E. Flat feet, ability to store fat and water By the early 3rd century, caravans crisscrossed the Sahara to trade with Mediterranean and Arab worlds

12 Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
“Ships of the Sahara”:

13 Indian Ocean Trade Routes
In addition to the Silk Road, trade routes developed between Africa, Europe, and Asia through the Indian Ocean

14 Indian Ocean Trade Routes
The Indian Ocean trade network included sailors from China Malaysia, Southeast Asia and Persia. Chinese pottery was traded along with Indian spices and ivory from India and Africa. The banana came to Africa from S.E. Asia via the Indian Ocean. The banana spread throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. The Indian Ocean trade network will continue to play a major role in the development of the Eastern Hemisphere well into the 16th century.

15 Indian Ocean Trade Routes
New knowledge of the monsoon winds allowed sailors to quickly sail between East Africa and East Asia Cosmopolitan cities developed in ports as sailors awaited the winds

16 Indian Ocean Trade Routes
New maritime technologies such as the lateen sail and dhow ship also increased exchanges between the two zones Dhow ship with lateen sail

17 Mediterranean Sea Lanes
An extensive network of trade routes developed throughout the Mediterranean regions as well Linked up with the Silk Road and Gold Road to transport goods to west Europe

18 Mesoamerican Trade As the Eastern Hemisphere became increasingly reliant upon trade, the civilizations of Mesoamerica were developing networks as well About the time of the height of Rome and the Han (c. 1st – 3rd centuries C.E.), the Mayan civilization began its Classical Age on the Yucatan peninsula

19 Mesoamerican Trade The Mayan and other Mesoamerican civilizations started an extensive network of trade known as the Turquoise Road Named after the lucrative trade commodity Sometimes referred to as the Scarlet Macaw after the colorful bird of the region Trade would eventually extend from the Yucatan to the Anasazi of modern SW United States

20 Mesoamerican Trade The Turquoise Road: The Scarlet Macaw:

21 Impact of Trade Routes As traders and merchants moved along these trade routes, not only did they exchanged goods, but they shared ideas, technology, religions, cultures, food crops, domesticated animals, and diseases. Process known as “diffusion”

22 Impact of Trade Routes Cultural Diffusion: Spreading of religions
Buddhism from India to China via the Silk Road Christianity around the Mediterranean regions via merchant ships and Roman trade Islam across North Africa via the Trans-Saharan Trade routes

23 Impact of Trade Routes Cultural Diffusion: Spreading of religions

24 Impact of Trade Routes Cultural Diffusion: Numeric systems
Arabic traders adopted from Hindu merchants and eventually shared the ideas with Europeans who adopted them for their own needs

25 It was all about angles that the Arabic traders used:
Impact of Trade Routes Cultural Diffusion: Numeric systems Even more interesting is why our numbers look like this: 1, 2, 3, 4, etc… It was all about angles that the Arabic traders used:

26 Impact of Trade Routes Cultural Diffusion: Foodstuffs Clothing
Rice and cotton from China to Middle East Clothing Persian head wrap in Hellenistic culture and eventually adopted as a Muslim religious tradition (hijab)

27 Impact of Trade Routes Technological Diffusion Irrigation Techniques
The qanat system of Persia spreads across Asia and Africa Paper making Techniques in making paper spread from China across Eurasia

28 Impact of Trade Routes Biological Diffusion
Diseases carried by traders moved swiftly from place to place along with the goods Several major plagues wipe out vast populations in Central Asia and Europe People had not been exposed to these diseases Urban areas hit hardest

29 Impact of Trade Routes Biological Diffusion
During 2nd and 3rd centuries, major epidemics hit Roman and Han empires Smallpox and measles Severely weaken empires as populations shrink Less soldiers Less taxes

30 Impact of Trade Routes Smallpox:

31 Changes and Continuities
Move from barter to coins as system of exchange Greater interaction between civilizations – direct links between Rome and China Cultural diffusion through trade – spread of religion, architecture, disease Decline in trade in Europe after fall of Rome

32 Changes and Continuities
Dominance of India and China in trade China’s demand for silver The Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade routes Constantinople as western trade hub

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