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Aerodynamics Dane Johannessen

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**Overview Aerodynamics What are the forces?**

How do these forces affect flight? What factors affect these forces?

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What is Aerodynamics? The study of forces acting on an object in motion as it passes through air.

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**Laws of Motion Objects in motion stay in motion**

Force is the change in momentum with respect to time For constant mass For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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What are the forces? Lift Drag Weight Thrust

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**Lift The vertical forces pushing up on a body during flight.**

General Equation: L = Lift Force ρ = density v = velociy A = area Cl = Lift coefficient that is usually determined experimentally

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Lift in Air Foils Based on pressure differences (Bernoulli’s Principle) Top Higher velocity and decreased pressure Bottom Lower velocity increased pressure

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**Factors Affecting Lift**

Shape of object Higher curve = greater lift Size of the object L = constant x A Velocity of the object L = constant x v² Properties of the air L = constant x ρ Angle of attack Increased angle = increased lift

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**Demonstration For more information on paper airplanes**

Go here

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**Drag Drag is the force that acts in the same direction as airflow**

General Equation: Fd = Drag Force ρ = density v = velocity A = area Cd = Drag Coefficient that is usually determined experimentally

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How Shape Affects Drag Different shapes of the same frontal area lead to different drag coefficients:

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Lift to Drag Ratio General Equation:

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**Weight Weight is the force on an object due to gravity**

Based on mass and gravitational acceleration General Equation: W = Weight Force m = mass g = gravity

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**Thrust Thrust is the force that propels an object through air**

General Equation: F = thrust force t = time m = mass v = velocity ṁ = mass flow rate ṁ = ρvA

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**Thrust Producers of thrust Main thing to take away Propellers**

Fans in jet engines Hot gases from rocket engines Main thing to take away Thrust must be greater than weight

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**Thrust to Weight Ratio General Equation: If F/W is high**

High acceleration High Climb rate If F/W > 1.0 Acceleration can be vertical

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**Summary Aerodynamics 4 Forces on a plane Lift > Drag**

Dependent on shape, size, velocity, air, angle Drag Dependent on shape Weight Thrust Lift > Drag Thrust > Weight

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**Sources Helpful Websites**

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Questions?

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