2 Iconic Logos have 5 important design elements. They are: DescribableMemorableEffective without colourScalable i.e. work when just two centimetres in sizeRelevant to the industry in questionPoints one and two go hand-in-hand, because if you can’t describe what a logo looks like then how will you be able to remember it?Point number three is important because colour is secondary to the shape and form. Some designers leave colour to the end of the design process, because if the mark doesn’t work in black only, no amount of colour will rescue it. THIS IS IMPORTANT FOR CORPORATE DESIGN BUT NOT NECESSARILY PERSONAL LOGO DESIGNPoint number four is vital for collateral, such as office stationery (pens, pin badges etc.)—all those little things that can easily be overlooked. CORPORATE DESIGN ONLYLastly, the design must be relevant for the business it identifies. This is accomplished through in-depth research into the industry involved, and helps to differentiate from closely associated competitors FOR PERSONAL LOGOS MAKE SURE THE LOGO SAYS SOMETHING ABOUT YOUFrom
3 Types of LogoWordmark logo – mainly uses text and typeface to create its message, though other elements might be included e.g. GoogleLettermark logo – similar to a wordmark but consists of initials or abbreviations e.g. monograms like the one used by Yves St LaurentBrandmark logo – a graphic symbol usually simple but powerful, that comes to represent the company in an abstract way e.g. Nike, AppleA combination mark logo – (also called an iconic logotype) combines a wordmark with a brandmark, communicating both a company’s identity and its purpose e.g. British Airways, Bank of America, AudiFrom:
4 Coca Cola (Wordmark Logo) 1885 version of the logo. The Coca-Cola logo was first advertised in the Atlanta Journal in 1915 and also appeared on the display of Pemberton’s pharmacy.The first Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton's partner and bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in Thinking that the two Cs would look well in advertising, it was Robinson who came up with the name and chose the logo’s distinctive cursive script. The typeface used, known as Spencerian script, was developed in the mid 19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period. The red and white coloured scheme in the Coca-Cola logo was kept simple and distinctive to lure young mindsThe Coca-Cola logo was registered as a trademark in 1887 and has since then become the brand’s corporate identity.
5 IBM (Lettermark Logo) 1924 version of the logo 1956 1948-56 1972 The first IBM logo was created in 1924, when the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company changed its name to International Business Machines Corporation. As part of their transformation, the creators of the company decided to the replace the previous ornate, rococo letters of the “CTR” logo into more modern wording of “Business Machines” in sans-serif font. The 1924 IBM logo was given a globe shape girded by the word “International” to suggest the company’s worldwide expansion.The globe shape IBM logo failed to accomplish the friendly and caring image of the company as it was faceless, bureaucratic, and cold. Hence, the firm’s solution to the image problem was to come up with something effective, yet reinforcing the user-friendly attribute of the company. Thus, the company changed its IBM logo to the newly adapted logotype. Surprisingly, that kind of change was the first in the company’s 22 years of business profile. The previously designed globe was altered to the simple lettering of “IBM” in a typeface called Beton Bold.In May 1956, Tom Watson Jr. took over the company as the new Chief Executive after his father passed away. In steps to exemplify the new management and technological era, the company endured subtle changes in its IBM logo. Hired by Tom Watson Jr. himself, the new IBM logo was created by the famous graphic designer, Paul Rand. That IBM logo was replaced by another typeface, known as City Medium, from the earlier Beton Bold typography, boasting a more solid, grounded and balanced look.In 1972, a new version of IBM logo was introduced, again designed by Paul Rand. The solid letters were replaced by horizontal stripes, suggesting speed and dynamism. The graphic evolution of IBM logo shows that the IBM logo is an excellent example of a company that uses capitalized block lettering to establish authority without alienating its audience. The IBM logo stands so absolute it looks like it was made by machine, instead of by hand.IBM is recognized as the powerhouse of high-quality computer products and services. The IBM logo is an image of expertise, innovation, service and trust, thereby reinforcing the strength of IBM in the industry. If observed closely, the IBM logo, also known as "Big Blue", generates a message of "Equality". The Big Blue IBM logo, with its lower right parallel lines, highlights in the shape of an "equals" sign. Furthermore, the term "BIG" in the Big Blue IBM logo refers to the company’s size in the market share, whereas, the "BLUE" is the official colour of the eight-bar IBM logo.1972
6 Apple (Brandmark Logo) The first Apple logo was designed by Jobs and Wayne in 1976, featuring Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. It was inspired by a quotation by Wordsworth that was also inscribed into the logo that said: “Newton… a mind forever voyaging through strange seas of thought” with ‘Apple Computer Co.’ on a ribbon banner ornamenting the picture frame.That Apple logo was immediately changed by designer Rob Janoff into a multicoloured apple with a bite taken out off its right side, better known as the “rainbow apple”. This was done to commemorate the discoveries of gravity (the apple) and the separation of light (the colours) done by Isaac Newton and possibly to tribute the ‘fruit of the Tree of Knowledge’ in Adam and Eve’s story. Even the term ‘Macintosh’ refers to a particular variety of an apple. But certain speculations exist about the proper meaning of the Apple logo. Some believe that the ‘rainbow coloured’ Apple logo was used to advertise the colour capability of the Apple II computer. Others, like author Sadie Plant of Zeroes and Ones, considers the Apple logo as homage to Alan Turning, the father of modern computing, who committed suicide using a cyanide-laced apple.For the last few years, the Apple logo has appeared in various colours (aqua colour scheme was famous among all). But now Apple has discontinued the use of bright colors in the Apple logo, instead opting for white and raw-aluminium colour schemes. The polished chrome logo seems to fit ideally. The silvery chrome finish in the new Apple logo is consistent with the design scheme and freshens up the icon. For whatever reason Apple Inc. had to revamp its logo, the new Apple logo got a hearty endorsement by the customers and critics around the world. It can widely be seen on all Apple products and retail stores; and has become one of the world’s most renowned brand symbols.The first Apple logo 1976
7 Burger King (Combination mark Logo) 1969 version of the logoIn 1969, Burger King established its famous Burger King “bun halves” logo that lasted till early 1990s. It was created to signify the eatery’s association with hamburgers. The earlier version of Burger King logo featured the name “Burger King” in orange placed in-between two ochre semi-circular bunsBy 1994, Burger King modernized its old Burger King logo by giving it a smoother typeface with rounded edge. This graphical tightening of the font replaced the obsolete “bulging” font to suit the advertising needs. Again in 1999, Burger King modified the Burger King logo that is a revised version of the original Burger King logo. The colour of the restaurant’s name in the new Burger King logo was changed from ochre to orange. A blue swirl was added in the new Burger King logo which wrapped the burger, giving the Burger King logo a circular appearance. The new Burger King logo also tilts the bun halves and the font on an axis making it contemporary and at the same time relevant. Though not instantly but gradually, in 2001, the new Burger King logo got endorsed by all of the Burger King outlets established throughout the country.New version of the logo
8 Which Logo Type to Use Wordmark Logo Design Communication funds are limited and should be focused on name recognition.Your name is reasonably distinctive but not (yet) a household word.You want to associate products with the parent more clearly and directly than a symbol permits.
9 Lettermark Logo Design Your initials translate graphically better than your actual name.You need to link subsidiaries to the parent and can't easily use the name.You can afford to teach the public what the lettermark means. Brandmark Logo DesignYou need an emblem on a product.Your name is too long, too generic, doesn't translate well globally, or has no personality.You can afford to teach the public what the symbol means.
10 A Combination mark Logo Design You are a start-up enterprise or small business with limited funds.Your name is reasonably distinctive but not (yet) a household word.You need an emblem on a product, but want more than just a symbol. Since Iconic Logotypes communicate more readily than other logotypes, less marketing is required for the logo to be effective. Therefore, iconic logotypes are the most cost effective type of logo design available and are ideal for start-ups or small businesses with limited marketing budgets.
11 ‘Identity through logos and emblems’ project brief “Design a powerful, eye-catching log for yourself. It should look good on paper, as a letterhead, on a website, on a T-shirt or baseball cap and as a badge. It must be easy to read at small sizes and work well when printed in black and white, as well as colour.”A logo has to communicate an important message minimally and instantly. Your task is to design a logo that projects a positive image of you. It should describe who you are and what you’re about. When someone sees it, what’s the first thing you want them to think? Make it as striking and original as possible using colours shapes or symbols that communicate the essential you – think about icons that express a key characteristic of your personality, including your main hobby or interest, and get creative with your initials.