Question WordAnswer Who?Farmers- Daniel Shay What?Shay led 1200 protestors to attack a federal arsenal When?1786-1787 Why?Rebellion against the government. States were demanding money for the debts and threatened to take away farmers farms. How/Outcome?Could the government maintain law and order under the Articles of Confederation?
The Constitutional Convention Articles of Confederation in place for 10 years when it was decided that the national government needed to be stronger. 1787 – delegates from 13 states met at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, PA to fix the Articles. The delegates 55 well educated men (lawyers, merchants, physicians, etc) All had political experience, 8 signed the Declaration of Independence, 7 state governors, & 41 were members of the continental congress Ben Franklin was the oldest (81), avg. age was 30-40
First Decisions George Washington chosen to lead the convention. Key decisions: One vote per state Simple majority Secrecy More than amendments needed-A new Constitution-NKA Constitutional Convention. Independence Hall Philadelphia, PA
Compromising for a Constitution Virginia Plan Big States plan-- Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, & New York President, courts, & congress with 2 house (bicameral) with population deciding representation. New Jersey Plan Small state plan– Delaware, Maryland, & New Jersey Based on Articles of confederation with a 1 house congress (unicameral) with one vote per state, set/regulate trade, & collect taxes. No president, committee appointed by congress to make decisions
Compromising for a Constitution The Great Compromise AKA Connecticut Compromise. Congress would have 2 houses Senate—2 members per state House of Representatives—seats based on population Three-Fifths Compromise 1787—550,000 enslaved African-Americans in mostly southern states. Hoped to use slaves in population count for representation. Compromise reached– every 5 enslaved persons would equal 3 free perons.
BR Compare and Contrast the Virginia and New Jersey Plan
Federalists & Anti-Federalists Federalists– Those who Supported the Constitution Main leaders: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay. Believed the it would create a system of federalism— form of government where power is divided between national & state governments. Reminded Americans of Articles weaknesses, & the need for a strong national government to defend nation at home and abroad.
The Federalist Papers helped explain the proposed Constitution to people. Its arguments proved persuasive at the time and continue to be relevant today. Critical Thinking: Speculating : In what way do you think the Federalist Papers continue to be useful today?
Federalists & Anti-Federalists Anti-Federalists– Those who opposed the Constitution Main leaders: Patrick Henry, James Winthrop, & George Mason Believed that the greatest threat to the future of the United States lay in the government's potential to become corrupt and seize more and more power until its tyrannical rule completely dominated the people. Key weakness of new constitution—No bill of rights to protect the individual
Launching a New Nation Federalists agree Constitution needs Bill of Rights & Government will add such a bill if it is adopted. Congress took effect May 1788 & by 1790 13 independent states have now become the United States of America
Exit Slip How well do you think the system developed by the Founding Fathers still works today? Using complete sentences, list and describe two (2) specific examples of ways in which it IS or IS NOT working.