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The Constitution Unit 3, Lesson 1.

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1 The Constitution Unit 3, Lesson 1

2 Essential Idea The Constitution was created through many compromises and faced opposition before it was ratified.

3 The Philadelphia/Constitutional Convention
The Convention: Delegates met in secret to avoid public influence Congress ordered REVISION of the Articles, but the Convention REPLEACED them

4 Major Framers of the Constitution
George Washington Contribution: Presided over and led Constitutional Convention James Madison Wrote majority of Constitution and Bill of Rights, nicknamed “Father of the Constitution” Alexander Hamilton Pushed hardest for creating a stronger federal government

5 Major Framers of the Constitution
Benjamin Franklin Contribution: Oldest delegate, used charm and wisdom to smooth over the debates Roger Sherman Came up with the Great Compromise The Convention

6 Principles of the Constitution
1. Popular Sovereignty: Means that the people rule, and power comes from them 2. Republicanism: People use popular sovereignty by electing officials who represent them in government

7 Principles of the Constitution
3. Separation of Powers: Government is separated into three branches, the legislative, executive, and judicial

8 Principles of the Constitution
4. Checks and Balances: Branches of government limit each others’ power through veto, impeachment, judicial review, etc.

9 Principles of the Constitution
5. Limited Government: The Constitution lists certain powers and limitations for government 6. Individual Rights: The Constitution lists the rights and freedoms of citizens

10 Principles of the Constitution
7. Federalism: Government is divided into a federal and state level States would disagree over which level should have more power This tension would be a factor in causing the Civil War

11 Conflict and Compromise
Representation in Congress Virginia Plan: Called for state representation in Congress based on population This plan favored bigger states New Jersey Plan: Called for state representation in Congress to be equal for all states This plan favored smaller states

12 Conflict and Compromise
Great (Connecticut) Compromise Details: This plan created a bicameral (two house) legislature House of Representatives- representation based on state populations Senate- each state had two representatives (equal)

13 Conflict and Compromise
Representation of slaves Northern States: Did not want slaves to count toward representation in House of Representatives Southern States: Wanted to count slaves for representation

14 Conflict and Compromise
Terms: Slaves would count as 3/5 of a person for representation (even though they could not vote) Future Impact: Southern states had “bloated” power in Congress and elections Tension over slavery would be a factor in causing the Civil War

15 Will it Pass? The Constitution Introduced:
The delegates announced nine of 13 states had to agree for the new Constitution to take effect The Congress of the Articles was too weak to stop itself from being replaced Ratification (passage) was debated across the country

16 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
Who? Federalists View on Constitution: Supported Constitution as it was Location of supporters: North Types of supporters: Urban, wealthy, businessmen Government Power? Strong federal government, weak states Interpretation of Constitution: Wanted loose interpretation Bill of Rights? No need for Bill of Rights

17 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
Who? Anti-Federalists View on Constitution: Opposed Constitution as it was Location of Supporters: South and West Types of supporters: Rural, less wealthy, farmers/agrarian Government Power? Weak federal government, strong states Interpretation of Constitution: Wanted strict interpretation Bill of Rights? Demanded Bill of Rights


19 Federalists Push the Constitution
Federalists Advantages: Stronger leaders like George Washington, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin Better organized, more control of the press Published The Federalist Papers, a series of essays to argue their case

20 Federalist No. 10 Said a large republic was the best form of government Republics used elected representatives to make laws Direct democracies were dangerous because factions (groups) could lead government against the rights of the rest of the people Representatives make wiser decisions, prevent corruption, and protect rights of everyone

21 Federalist No. 51 Explained the need for checks and balances in government Argued that separation of powers caused each branch to limit the others Said that limiting government this way protected peoples’ rights

22 Battle for Ratification
Debate over the Constitution Small states: Many small states quickly joined because the Great Compromise gave them more power than they expected High Population States: Massachusetts and Virginia joined only when Federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution

23 Constitution Ratified
Ratification: Constitution was ratified by the required nine states and the new government started working in 1789 Outnumbered, the remaining states had little choice but to join or be left behind Debate and Ratification George Washington became the first president of the United States


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