Presentation on theme: "MORAL DEVELOPMENT MORALITY AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1 MORAL DEVELOPMENT MORALITY AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT THREE FACTORS OF MORALITYTHEORIES OF MORALITYPIAGETS’ AND KOHLBERG THEORIES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
2 WHAT IS MORALITY/MORAL? Cullis T et al(1999): define morality as beliefs about what is wrong and right, good and bad.Santrock (1995): defines moral as rules and conventions about what people should behave in their interactions with other people.Slavin, R (1988): refers moral to rules that tell people how to communicate with one another and behave, how to avoid hurting others and how to get along in life generally.
3 WHAT IS MORALITY?Fontana (1986:265) in Psychology for Teachers: morals are attitudes and behaviors that are generally prized by a society in which one lives. They may be rules seen by responsible members of society as having a binding effect in matters of conduct and of interpersonal relationships.
4 WHAT IS MORALITY?The definitions show that morality or moral is about:Understanding and beliefs about right and wrong;Adherence to rules and conventions that govern people’s interactions and bind their relationships;Avoiding harming others, expecting happiness and good;Society’s approved attitudes and practices.
5 FACTORS OF MORALITYMORALITYAFFECTIVE FEELINGS, APPROVAL, SATISFACTION. APPRECIATIONCOGNITIVEUNDERSTANDING, REASONING, JUDGINGBEHAVIORALACTUAL BEHAVIOR, WHAT A PERSON DOES
6 PERSPECTIVES ABOUT MORALITY PSYCHOANALYTICUNCONSCIOUS INTERNALIZATION OF MORALETHROUGH REARING PRACTICES, PARENTS INFLUENCE MORAL CODES AND STANDARDSBEHAVIORALMORAL CODES, VALUES AND STANDARDS ARE LEARNT THROUGH CONDITIONINGREWARDS AND PUNISHMENTSOCIALOBSERVATION, MODELING, IMITATION AND REINFORCEMENTCOGNITIVEMORAL CODES, VALUES AND STANDARDS ARE LEARNT THROUGH REASONING, JUDGING, INTERPRETING MORAL BEHAVIOR
7 PIAGET’S THREE STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT AMORAL (before 4 years old): No awareness of rules;unable to give moral judgmentHETERONOMOUS (4-7 years):rules from authority (parents, teachers, God); can not be questioned or challenged.They are fixed and obligatory.Breaking rules deserves penalty (immanent justice).They are moral realists;Consider damage causednot intentionAUTONOMOUS morality(10 years onwards): rules are not fixed, not absolute, can be questioned, challenged and changed depending upon the wish of the people.Rules are created by people for regulating behaviorConsider both intention consequences.
8 Kohlberg conception of morality Source: Kohlberg’s ‘Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive- Developmental Approach’ in Diessner, R. 1997: Sources: Notable Selections in Human Development pp 25-34)He builds his theory upon Piaget’s theory.AssumptionsHis theory is based on analysis of moral dilemma administered to people of different ages.
9 Development of logic, intelligence and reasoning is important in moral development. Advanced moral reasoning depends on advanced logical reasoning.Moral development is associated with social perception (understanding people’s feeling, thoughts and their roles).
10 MORAL DILEMMAA woman had a special kind of cancer. There was one drug recently discovered that might save her and was expensive to make but the druggist was charging ten times of the expenses. The sick man’s husband tried to borrow money from many people but failed to get the required money even half of the price. He asked the druggist to sell it cheaper in order to save his wife but refused and answered, ‘I have discovered the drug and I’m going to make money from it’. So the husband broke into the store and steal the drug for his wife. Taken from Kohlberg 1969 in Santrock, J; 1995:p334.
11 Questions about the moral dilemma Should the husband have stolen the drug?Was stealing it right or wrong? Why?Is it the husband’s duty to steal the drug for his wife? If he can not get it by other means?Would a good husband steal?Did the druggist have the right to charge that much when there was no law setting a limit on the price? Why or why not? (Santrock;1995: 334).
12 Kohlberg conception of moral development Kohlberg analyzed the answers from which he developed three levels of moral development;LeveI: Pre-conventional level,LeveII: Conventional level andLeveIII: Post-conventional level.Within each level there are two stages. The second stage is more advanced and organized form of each major level.
13 Conventional: conforming to the rules, expectations and conventions of society or authority. LEVEL I: Pre-conventional: most children under nine, some adolescents and criminals.Rules and social expectations are external to the self;
14 Stage one: awareness of social control in enforcing rules. Children do good to avoid punishment, fear of breaking the rule and avoiding physical damage to persons and property.Stage 2: doing good for meeting immediate satisfaction, interest and needs.Right is what is fair, it is an equal exchange, a deal and an agreement.A stage of mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships and conformity
15 LEVEL II: Conventional: (most adolescents and adults). Stage 3: A level of good boy and good girl mentality, law and order mentality.The self is identified with or has internalized the rules and expectations of others or the authority.People are loyal and trustful.They do good to seek approval, respect and mutual relationships from social members.
16 Stage 4:Behavior is judged by intention.People support society’s standards of conduct and authority in maintaining social order.They don’t want the rules to be broken and any one breaking the rules deserves punishment.
17 LEVEL III (Post- conventional): few adults and is usually reached after the age of 20. Stage 5: Social contract or utility, individual rights and a sense of obligation to laws.People understand and accept the society’s rules and values which must be based on the general moral principles.People question and redefine rules and conventions in terms of individual’s moral perspective and social obligations.
18 An individual is committed to the standard and to moral principles of a good or just society. Belief in universal moral right and moral conscience.Conventions are rationally defined in ways that can be justified to any moral individual.
19 Stage 6: Post-conventional people judge by universal principles rather than by conventions, e.g. equality, human rights, respect.People reason out why something is wrong or rightSelf-chosen ethical principles
20 ReferencesDavenport, G.C (1994): An Introduction to Child Development (2nd edition). London: Collins EducationalElliot, S et al (2000): Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning. Boston: McGraw Hill,.Kohlberg, L ‘Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive- Developmental Approach’ in Diessner, R. 1997: Sources: Notable Selections in Human Development pp 25-34). New York: Dushkin.Papalia, D et al (2001):Human Development (eighth edition). Boston: McGraw HillRosser, R & Nicholson, G (1987): Educational Psychology: Principles and Practice. Boston: Little Brown and Comp.Santrock, J (1999): Psychology; The Science of Mind and Behavior. Dubuque: WCB. Brown & Benchmark.