2 How are autotrophs and heterotrophs different? Give an example of each.
3 PRODUCERS - PHOTOAUTOTROPHS (aka photoautotrophs)Solar EPhotosynthesis – use solar E to produce foodProducers of biosphere
4 PRODUCERS - CHEMOAUTOTROPHS (aka chemoautotrophs)Chemical EChemosynthesis – use chemical E to produce foodAlso, producers of biosphere
5 CONSUMERS - HETEROTROPHS CONSUMER (aka heterotrophs) - Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and foodHerbivore - Obtain E by eating plantsOmnivore - Obtain E by eating plants and animalsCarnivore - Obtain E by eating animalsDetritivores - Obtain E by feeding on the remains or wastes of other organismsDecomposers - Obtain E by breaking down organic matter
6 Concept 7.1 – Sunlight powers life. Describe how organisms release energy from food. Through cellular respiration, oxygen is used to release energy from glucose and produce ATP.
7 What are some types of energy? PotentialKineticChemical
8 Concept 7.2 – Food stores chemical energy. What is the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy?Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.Potential energy is energy that is stored.
9 Concept 7.2 – Food stores chemical energy. How do cells release chemical energy from food?In cellular respiration, oxygen reacts with the organic molecules of food (sugar), breaking the molecules into smaller molecules and releasing chemical energy (ATP).
11 Energy Consumed by Daily Activities What is ATP?Adenosine triphosphate. Is a nitrogencontaining compound called adenineand a five carbon sugar called ribose. Hasthree phosphate groups.
12 7.3 ATP provides energy for cellular work How is energy released from ATP?Energy is released from ATP when a phosphate bond is broken.
13 Concept 7.3 – ATP provides energy for cellular work. What are the three main types of cellular work?Chemical work, mechanical work, transport work (active transport)
14 7.4 Electrons fall How is breathing related to cellular respiration? Breathing brings oxygen into the body that is required by cells for cellular respiration (mitochondria). Breathing also removes the waste product of cellular respiration, carbon dioxide.
15 Cellular Respiration Equation What are the products of cellular respiration?Carbon dioxide, water, and energy (ATP)
16 7.5 Cellular RespirationDo you like to run, bike, or swim? These all are good ways to exercise. When you exercise, your body uses oxygen to get energy from glucose.How does your body feel at the start of exercise, such as a long, slow run? How do you feel 1 minute into the run; 10 minutes into the run?What do you think is happening in your cells to cause the changes in how you feel?Think about running as fast as you can for 100 meters. Could you keep up this pace for a much longer distance? Explain your answer.
17 Overview of Cellular Respiration What is cellular respiration?Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food (glucose) in the presence of oxygen.
18 Overview of Cellular Respiration What is cellular respiration?Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food (glucose) in the presence of oxygen.C6H12O O2 6 H2O CO Energyglucose oxygen water carbon ATPdioxideWhat would be the problem if cellular respiration occurred in just one step?Burn up all energy instead of a gradual release of energy
19 Cellular Respiration: An Overview Section 9-1Electrons carried in NADHPyruvic acidElectrons carried in NADH and FADH2GlucoseKrebs CycleGlycolysisElectron Transport Chainglycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport chain223236 Total ATP
20 Glycolysis First step in cellular respiration Glyco / lysis – “to break glucose”Does not need oxygen to occurWhere does glycolysis take place in the cell?Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.GlycolysisProcess in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid.
21 Glycolysis How does the cell get glycolysis going? The cell uses energy. 2 molecules of ATP are used up.What are the products of glycolysis?Pyruvate and 4 ATP moleculesGlucose to two molecules of pyruvate acid
22 C. GlycolysisWhy is there only a NET of 2 ATP molecules produced during glycolysis?2 ATP molecules were used to start reaction
23 What happens after glycolysis??? Glycolysis is ALWAYS the first step in the break down of glucose.Glycolysis does not need oxygen to occurIf oxygen is NOT present, glycolysis is followed by anaerobic respiration.Alcoholic FermentationLactic Acid Fermentation
24 What happens after glycolysis??? Glycolysis is ALWAYS the first step in the break down of glucose.If oxygen is NOT present, glycolysis is followed by anaerobic respiration (Fermentation)Alcoholic FermentationLactic Acid FermentationIf oxygen is present, glycolysis is followed by aerobic respiration – a process that requires oxygen
25 Anaerobic Respiration: Fermentation What is fermentation?Fermentation is a process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen.Where does fermentation occur in the cell?Cytoplasm of the cell.Why is fermentation considered an anaerobic process?Anaerobic is process that does not require oxygenFermentation does NOT require oxygen
26 Anaerobic Respiration: Fermentation Two main types of fermentationAlcohol fermentationLactic acid fermentation
27 Glycolysis Alcoholic Fermentation What organisms use alcoholic fermentationYeasts and other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentationWaste products are alcohol and carbon dioxideWhat happens to the small amount of alcohol produced during the baking of bread?Evaporates when bread is baked.
28 Glycolysis Alcoholic Fermentation How does fermentation allow the production of ATP to continue?NAD+ is looped to start the process over again.
29 Glycolysis Lactic Acid Fermentation Section 9-1Glucose2 Pyruvic acid2 Lactic acidLactic Acid Fermentation –Lactic acid is produced by your muscles during rapid exercise when not enough oxygen is present.Prokaryotes produce lactic acid as a waste product which is used in production of foods: yogurt, cheese, sour cream, sauerkraut, etc.
30 SUMMARYGlycolysisGlycolysis is ALWAYS the first step in the break down of glucose.If oxygen is NOT present, glycolysis is followed by anaerobic respiration.Alcoholic FermentationLactic Acid FermentationIf oxygen is present, glycolysis is followed by aerobic respiration.
31 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport At the end of glycolysis, how much of the chemical energy in glucose is still unused?Approx. 90%Because the final stages of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are said to be aerobic.
32 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Where do the reactions of the Krebs cycle take place in the cell???Mitochondrial matrix
33 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
34 Electron Transport Chain Where do the reactions of the electron transport chain take place in the cell???Inner membrane of mitochondria
35 The Electron Transport The Electron Transport Chainseries of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
36 Cellular Respiration and Energy In the presence of oxygen, the cell can produce 36 ATP molecules per one glucose molecule
37 Transfer of Energy to ATP Where does the energy in food go?When broken down, the energy gets stored in a molecule known as ATPATP delivers energy wherever it is needed in the cell. For example:ATP drives muscle movementTransport of molecules across the cell membraneATP drives cellular respirationHow does ATP deliver energy to the cell?It is in it’s structure