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Chapter 4: The Human World

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: The Human World"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4: The Human World

2 World Population 6.5 Billion

3 World Population Growth

4 Growth Rate Birth Rate: Births per year, per 1000 people
Death Rate: Deaths per year, per 1000 people Growth Rate = (Birth Rate – Death Rate) In the last 200 years improved medicine has cause the Death Rate to drop drastically

5 Population Growth In the Developed World, Birth & Death Rates are equal Zero Population Growth, elsewhere growing rapidly

6 Population Growth: Why?
Growth Rate is high in Latin America, Africa, parts of Asia Traditions of large families, agricultural economies Doubling time is 25 years, compared to 300 years in the developed world

7 Challenges of Population Growth: Africa
Only part of world where food production has not increased since 1950. Warfare & Weather often damage crops Rapid population growths strains countries’ resources: Food, Clothing, Shelter and Clean Water

8 Challenges of Population Growth: Worldwide
Can Food Production keep pace with Population? Some Scientists say Yes, some say No. Possibilities include new technologies in irrigation, fertilizers, new varieties of plants

9 Negative Population Growth
Death Rate > Birth Rate: Germany & Hungary Declining Populations lead to their own problems Not enough labor, Guest Workers, Tensions, Protests

10 Population Distribution
Populations are not evenly distributed across the Earth or across individual countries Only a portion of the Earth is land, and only part of the land is actually habitable

11 Population Movement Over the last hundred years people have been moving from rural areas and into cities What is the significance of this movement?

12 Global Culture

13 Elements of Culture Religion Social Groups Government
Language Religion Social Groups Government Economic Activities

14 Culture Regions Regions with many countries that have traits in common
History Economics Language Art Religion Food Government Etc

15 Culture Hearths Early Centers of Civilization whose ideas spread

16 Eight Features of Civilization
Cities Organized Central Governments Complex Religions Job Specialization

17 Eight Features of Civilization
Social Classes Arts & Architecture Public Works Writing

18 Cultural Diffusion Civilizations Make Contact With One Another
Ideas & Practices Spread Through Trade and Travel

19 Cultural Change Three Major Historic Changes
Agricultural Revolution: Shift from Hunting-Gathering to Cultivation Industrial Revolution: Factories & Machines to Produce Goods: Cities Information Revolution: Computers – Info Storage – Networks - Linkage

20 Government Two Levels of Government:
Unitary Systems: All power in one National Government Federal Systems: Power Shared Between National & States/Provinces

21 Types of Government Autocracy: Rule by One: Dictatorship, Monarchy, etc Oligarchy: Rule by the Few: Wealthy, Military, etc Democracy: Rule with Consent of Governed

22 Economics

23 Economic Systems: Command/Planned Economies
Traditional Economies Command/Planned Economies Market/Capitalist Economies

24 Natural Resources Renewable Non-Renewable

25 Resource Management Immediate Goal: Manage Vital Resources so that People’s present needs are met Long Term Goal: Ensure that the needs of Future Generations are met Replace Fossil Fuels with Renewable Sources

26 Economic Development Primary Economic Activities
Secondary Economic Activities Tertiary Economic Activities Quaternary Economic Activities

27 Primary Economic Activities
Directly taking resources from the Earth

28 Secondary Economic Activities
Use Raw Materials to Produce something new & valuable These activities can occur close to resource or market

29 Tertiary Economic Activities
Do not involve acquiring or remaking natural resources These activities provide services to people or businesses

30 Quaternary Economic Activities
Concerned with the processing & management of information Government, Info Processing, Education, Research

31 Economic Development Developed Countries Developing Countries
Manufacturing & Industrial Base Large Scale Agriculture Educated Population Source of Resources Small Scale Agriculture Subsistence Farming Less Educated Population

32 World Trade Countries Export Specialized Products They Produce
Countries Import Things They Need

33 Barriers to World Trade
Tariffs: Taxes on Imports Quotas: Limits on number of Items that can be Imported Embargo: Banning Trade with a Country

34 Free Trade Some Governments favor reducing barriers to trade
World Trade Organization (WTO): International Organization promoting Free Trade European Union (EU): Worlds largest trading block, common currency (Euro) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): USA, Canada and Mexico

35 People and the Environment

36 Pollution Water Pollution: Oil spills, fertilizer & pesticide runoff, chemical waste, etc Land Pollution: Chemical waste in topsoil, radioactive waste, etc Air Pollution: Exhaust from fossil fuels, acid rain, etc

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