10 Problem StatementThe question you are trying to solve. he primary purpose of a problem statement is to focus the attention of the problem solving team.
11 Forming and Testing a Hypothesis Hypothesis – a suggested answer to a well-defined scientific question.An explanation on trialAre usually concerned with natural phenomenaOften based on past experience of knowledge gained from discoveries or other sources
12 An Educated GuessPeople normally use hypothesis to solve everyday problems.After you propose a hypothesis – you test these ideas by making additional observations or designing an experiment.
13 Hypothesis – If…. Then…..Additional observations allows you to make predictionsThese predictions are tested.A Hypothesis is written as an If… Then… Statement.If a particular hypothesis is correct, and you test that hypothesis with a suitable experiment, then you should expect a certain result for the experiment.
14 Hypothesis An incorrect hypothesis does not mean failure Just wrongThe inquiry continues with test of alternative hypothesis.Even when an experiment supports a hypothesis curiosity can send you in a new direction.
15 What makes a Hypothesis Scientific? Even if a hypothesis that stand-up to repeated testing may later be revised or even rejected.A change can occur when new tools make new kinds of observations and experiments are possible.The magnet core of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) particle accelerator in Geneva. Site of the discovery of the God particle
16 Observations & DataThe questions that drive scientific inquiry are based on observation.Observation – the use of senses; such asvision/hearing; to gather andrecord information about structuresor process.Data - recorded observation; items of informationAll observations depend on human senses.Scientific instruments vastly increase the range of possible observation
17 Data Quantitative Data – Recordable observations Metric SystemQualitative Data – data recorded asdescription instead ofmeasurementsData can best support science when they are clearly organized, consistently recorded, and reliable. ie. Use tables
18 Designing a Controlled Experiment Variable – A condition that can differ within theexperimentControlled Experiment – An experiment that testthe effect of a singlevariableIn a controlled experiment scientist try to eliminate (or control) other variables that could affect the outcome
19 VariablesVariables could include temperature, humidity (if outside), light, and other weather conditionsEven in a lab total regulation of all but one variable is not practical.
20 Eliminating Unwanted Variables A Control Group Equals Cancelled outExperimental Group
21 TheoryA well tested explanation that makes sense of a great variety of scientific observationsCompared to hypothesis, a theory is much broader in scope.
22 ModelsAre physical, mental, or mathematical representations of how people understand a process or an idea.
23 Communication in Science Many scientist work in teams and are good communicatorsThey share information:
24 The Characteristics of Living Things Living Things ReproduceAll organisms reproduce.They produce new similar organismsSexual Reproduction – Cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organismAsexual Reproduction – a single organism produces offspring identical to itself.
25 The Characteristics of Living Things Interaction with the EnvironmentWe are not isolated from our environment, No One Is!All organisms in an environment interacts continuously with its environment.Stimulus – a signal to which organismresponds
26 The Characteristics of Living Things EnergyMoving, growing, reproducing, and other activities of life require organisms to perform work.Work depends on a source of energyWe obtain energy in the chemical form, sugar, fats, etc.Metabolism – the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
27 The Characteristics of Living Things Living Things are Made of CellsOrganisms are composed of one or more cellsThe smallest units considered fully alive.Cells can growRespond to the environmentDespite their small size they are highly organizedPhytoplankton – primary producer in the oceans and provides the majority of oxygen production on Earth
28 The Characteristics of Living Things RegulationOrganisms have the ability to regulate their internal conditionsSweating on a warm dayDogs panting to cool offHomeostasis – internal stability or “steady state” maintained by the bodyMechanisms of homeostasis enables organisms to regulate internal environment, despite changes in their external environment.
29 The Characteristics of Living Things Adaptation and EvolutionTaken as a group living things evolve.Over generations, groups of organisms evolve, or change over time
30 The Characteristics of Living Things Living things Grow and DevelopDuring development a single egg divides again and againAs cells divide they differentiateThey begin to look differentThey perform different functions
31 The Characteristics of Living Things Living Things are Based on a Universal CodeAll organisms store the information they need to live, grow, and reproduce in a genetic code written on a molecule called DNA.This information is passed from parent to offspring
32 10 Big Ideas Information and Heredity Matter and Energy Genetic code and DNAMatter and EnergyLife requires nutrientsCreates a web of interdependent relationships between living things
33 10 Big Ideas Growth, Development, and Reproduction Homeostasis All living things growGeneralized cells become specializedBabies become adultsHomeostasisStable environment
34 10 Big Ideas Cellular Basis of Life Evolution All living things are made of cellsThe human body has more than 200 different types of cellsEvolutionLiving things evolve as a group
35 10 Big Ideas Structure and Function Unity and Diversity of Life Structures that make a function possibleWings on a birdUnity and Diversity of LifeLife variety of life and life formsAll are the same at the molecular levelAll made of carbon based moleculesStore information in DNAUse proteins
36 10 Big Ideas Interdependence in Nature Science as a way of Knowing All forms of life on Earth are connected into a BiosphereRelationships depend on the cycling of matter and the flow of energyScience as a way of KnowingScience is not a list of factsExplains the natural world in terms of natural forcesExplains and predicts