Presentation on theme: "Greek Philosophy and History"— Presentation transcript:
1 Greek Philosophy and History Chapter 5, Section 2
2 Greek Philosophers Philosophy – “love of wisdom”. Led to the study of history, political science, science, and math.Philosophers – believed the human mind could understand everything.Many were teachers
3 Pythagorastaught his pupils that the universe followed the same laws that governed music and numbers.Believed that all relationships in the world could be expressed in numbers.Pythagorean TheoremDetermines the length of the sides of a triangleA2 + B2 = C2
4 The Sophists Professional teachers in ancient Greece Believed students should use their time to improve themselvesTaught how to win an argument and make good speechesDid not believe that gods/goddesses influenced peopleRejected the idea of absolute right and wrongBelieved that what was right for one person, may be wrong for another
5 Socrates Critic of the Sophists Athenian sculptor – true love was philosophyNo writings leftLearned from his student’s writingsBelieved that an absolute truth existed & all real knowledge was within each person
6 Socratic methodAsked pointed questions to force his pupils to use their reason and to see things for themselves.Athenian leaders felt threatened by the Socratic method399 B.C. – Athenian leaders accused Socrates of teaching young Athenians to rebel against the state.Jury convicted him – sentenced to deathDrank poison - died
7 Student of SocratesRepublic- based on life in AthensPeople divided into 3 social groupsTop – philosopher-kings – ruled using logic and wisdomMiddle- Warriors – defended the stateBottom – rest of the people – driven by desire, not wisdom or courage.
8 Plato believe women should have equal rights – same education and chance to do the same jobs Plato also established a school in Athens – the Academy
9 Wrote more than 200 books – govt. planets. stars. Plato’s best studentWrote more than 200 books – govt. planets. stars.Lyceum – school opened in 335 B.C.Taught the “golden mean”Idea that a person should do nothing in excessUse your senses to make observations.
10 Government divided into 3 types: PoliticsGovernment divided into 3 types:Govt. by 1 personmonarch (king/queen), or a tyrantGovt. by a few peoplearistocracy or oligarchyRun by the richGovt. by many peopleDemocracyRun by the poor
11 Mixture of oligarchy and democracy Aristotle’s ideas shaped European/American govts.US – tried to create a mixture of govt. that balanced the different types Aristotle identified.
12 Greek Historians History is the study of the human past Herodotus – wrote the history of the Persian Wars.Tried to separate fact from legend.Thucydides – considered the greatest historian in the ancient worldFought and wrote about the Peloponnesian War.Saw war and politics as the activities of human beings, not gods.Also stressed the importance of having accurate facts.