6 Description of U.S. Census Classifications DateWhiteAfrican AmericanNative AmericanAsian AmericanOther1890Black Mulatto Quadroon OctoroonIndianChinese Japanese1900Black1910Black Mulatto
7 Description of U.S. Census Classifications DateWhiteAfrican AmericanNative AmericanAsian AmericanOther1920Black MulattoIndianChinese Japanese1930NegroFilipino Hindu KoreanMexican Other
8 Description of U.S. Census Classifications DateWhiteAfrican AmericanNative AmericanAsian AmericanOther1940NegroIndianChinese Japanese Filipino Hindu Korean1950Chinese Japanese FilipinoHawaiian Other
9 Description of U.S. Census Classifications DateWhiteAfrican AmericanNative AmericanAsian AmericanOther1960NegroAmerican Indian Aleut EskimoChinese JapaneseFilipinoHawaiian Other1970Negro or BlackIndian (American)Chinese Japanese Filipino KoreanHawaiian Other
10 Description of U.S. Census Classifications DateWhiteAfrican AmericanNative AmericanAsian AmericanOther1980Black or NegroIndian (American) Eskimo AleutChinese Japanese Filipino Korean Asian Indian VietnameseHawaiian Guamanian Samoan Asian or Pacific Islander Other2000Black or African AmericanAmerican Indian Alaskan NativeChinese JapaneseFilipino Korean Asian Indian VietnameseNative Hawaiian Other Pacific Islander Other
11 Ethnic Minority: Characteristics Possesses characteristics regarded as different from the dominant group (race, ethnicity, sexual preference, age, religion.)Suffers prejudice and discrimination by the dominant group.
12 Ethnic Minority: Characteristics Membership is ascribed rather than achieved.Members feel a sense of group solidarity.
13 Stereotypes Reinforce prejudices and cause them to persist in society. Racial and gender stereotypes receive ongoing support in the media.Justify the oppression of groups based on race, ethnicity and gender.
14 Prejudice, Discrimination and Racism Prejudice is an attitude involving prejudgment on the basis of race or ethnicity.Discrimination is actual behavior involving unequal treatment.Racism involves both attitude and behavior.
16 Prejudice and Socialization Media stereotypes began to improve as a result of civil rights activity in the 1960s.Positive interactions between Blacks and Whites have been 5% or less of total interactions on television programs.
18 Scapegoat TheoryMembers of the dominant group harbor frustrations in their desire to achieve success.They vent their anger in the form of aggression.The aggression is directed toward members of minority groups who serve as scapegoats.
19 Authoritarian Personality Characteristics:Tendency to categorize other peopleRigidly conformIntolerance of ambiguityInclined to superstition
20 Theories of Race and Ethnicity The Racial OrderFunctionalismSocial stability when racial and ethnic groups are assimilated into societyConflict TheoryIs intricately intertwined with class stratificationSymbolic InteractionBased on social construction that assigns people to racial and ethnic categories
21 Theories of Race and Ethnicity Minority GroupsFunctionalismAssimilated into dominant culture as they adopt cultural practicesConflict TheoryLife chances result from opportunities formed by intersection of class, race, and genderSymbolic InteractionForm identity as the result of sociohistorical change
22 Contact TheoryInteractions will reduce prejudice if 3 conditions are met:Contact is between individuals of equal status.Contact is sustained.Participants agree upon social norms favoring equality.
23 Native AmericansPopulation in north America in 1492 was from 1 to 10 million.Conquest, disease, and expulsion from their lands resulted in a population of 300,000 by 1850.
24 Native Americans55% of Native Americans live on or near a reservation.Highest poverty rate of all minorities and 50% unemployment among males.
25 African AmericansBetween 20 and 100 million Africans were transported to the Americas.The majority went to Brazil and the Caribbean, 6% went to the U.S.Slavery evolved as a rigid caste system, also involving the domination of men over women.
26 African AmericansAfter the civil war, sharecropping emerged as a new exploitative system.The migration of Blacks to the urban north from the 1900s through the 1920s encouraged the development of political, social, and cultural action.
27 LatinosIncludes Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and other Latin American immigrants.Includes Latin Americans who were early settlers in the U.S.The terms Hispanic and Latino/a mask the great diversity among the groups.
28 Latinos Entries into U.S. Society: Mexican Americans through military conquest ( ).Puerto Ricans through war with Spain (1898).Cubans as political refugees (1959).
29 Chinese, thousands of Chinese laborers worked for the Central Pacific railroad.In 1882, the Chinese exclusion act banned immigration of laborers and intermarriage.Hostility and exclusion resulted in the creation of Chinatowns.
30 JapaneseImmigration of the first generation (Issei) took place between 1890 and 1924.In 1924, passage of the Japanese immigration act forbade further immigration.The second generation (Nisei) became better educated and assimilated.
31 JapaneseMembers of the third generation (Sansei) met with prejudice and discrimination.During WWII, Japanese Americans were forced into relocation camps.In 1987, legislation was passed awarding $20,000 to each relocated person and offering an apology.
32 Middle EasternersImmigrants from Middle Eastern countries such as Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, and Iran began arriving in the mid-1970s.Like other immigrants, many experienced downward mobility and formed their own ethnic enclaves.
33 White Ethnic GroupsImmigration dates to the WASP immigrants from England, Scotland, and Wales.40% of the world’s Jewish population lives in the U.S.In 1924, the National Origins Quota Act, the most discriminatory act in U.S. immigration history, was passed.
34 Domestic Colonialism Model Four elements:Forced and involuntary entry.Control of the group’s affairs by the colonizers.Racism justifies the colonizer’s domination.The minority is prevented from expressing its culture and values.
38 1. A social category of people who share a common culture is referred to by sociologists as: a. a minority groupb. a cultural groupc. a racial groupd. an ethnic group
39 Answer: dA social category of people who share a common culture is referred to by sociologists as an ethnic group.
40 2. Which of the following statements is true regarding minority groups? a. Members of a minority group have a strong sense of group solidarityb. Membership in a minority group is usually achieved.c. Members of a minority group are usually female.d. Members of a minority group usually know each other.
41 Answer: aThe statement, members of a minority group have a strong sense of group solidarity is true regarding minority groups.
42 3. An oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group that is used to categorize members of that group is referred to as:a. salience principleb. discriminationc. prejudiced. stereotype
43 Answer: dAn oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group that is used to categorize members of that group is referred to as stereotype.
44 4. The gendered racism theory is most closely associated with the: a. symbolic interactionist perspectiveb. evolutionary perspectivec. functionalist perspectived. conflict perspective
45 Answer: dThe gendered racism theory is most closely associated with the conflict perspective.
46 5. De facto segregation is common in housing and education. a. Trueb. False
47 Answer: TrueDe facto segregation is common in housing and education.