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Processes Shaping Planet Earth

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Presentation on theme: "Processes Shaping Planet Earth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Processes Shaping Planet Earth
Essential Question: What forces have helped shape Earth’s landforms, climate, and plant life?

2 Lithosphere Consists of Earth’s crust and the top section of solid mantle. Divided into shifting tectonic plates.

3 Plate Tectonic Motion Scientists believe all continents formed 1 giant land mass and these have moved over time. Effects: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Seafloor Spreading, Mountains and Rift Valleys.

4 Causes of Plate Tectonic Motion
Believed heat and gravity may be responsible for the movement of tectonic plates. Gravity pulls oceanic plates under land plates.

5 Effects of Plate Tectonic Motion
Mountain Building Seafloor Spreading and Rift Valleys

6 Effects of Plate Tectonic Motion
Volcanoes Earthquakes and Tsunamis



9 Weathering and Erosion
Weathering: Rocks broken apart by wind, water, ice and organisms. Erosion: Rocks and particles are broken down and carried to a new location. Weathering Erosion


11 The Hydrosphere It is made up of all water on Earth’s surface. 70% of Earth’s surface is covered by oceans. Water circulates through evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff.

12 Where liquid fresh water is found
The Hydrosphere Forms saltwater—97 percent of world’s water freshwater—most frozen in ice caps; less than 1 percent in vapor and liquid form Where liquid fresh water is found surface water—in rivers, lakes, estuaries, wetlands groundwater—stored in soil and water table (aquifers)


14 Tides and Currents Gravitational pull of the moon causes tides, a cyclic rise and fall of the oceans. Ocean water is moved by surface and deep sea currents.

15 The Atmosphere and Weather
The atmosphere is an envelope of gases around Earth. The gases of the atmosphere absorb solar radiation, moderate temperatures and distribute water. Orographic Precipitation Windward Side Leeward Side

16 Effects of mountains and elevation on weather and climate:
Increase in elevation causes drop in temperature. Mountains cause orographic effect: moist air meets a barrier and is pushed upward, causing cooling, condensation, and precipitation. Mountainside facing wind is the windward, wetter side; side facing away from wind is the leeward, drier side, called the rain shadow.

17 Rain Shadow

18 The Atmosphere and Weather
Weather consists of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind. Heating of the atmosphere and Earth’s spin create wind patterns. Surface features like mountains also affect weather.






24 Climate Climate is determined by average weather conditions over a long period of time. Influenced by: Latitude, Elevation, Winds, Ocean Currents, Mountain Barriers

25 Climate Climate Regions based on similarities in climate. Examples include Polar Climates and Tropical Climates. High-Latitude Climates: North/South Poles have similar climates with very cold winter temperatures. Mid-Latitude Climates: warm summers and cool winters. Located North of Tropic of Cancer and South of Tropic of Capricorn Low-Latitude Climates: tropical climates with warm temperatures. Located between the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn.

26 The Biosphere and Biomes
Biosphere refers to all life on Earth. Biomes are variations in climate which lead to distinct regions based on similarities of plant and animal life. Temperate Deciduous Forest: ample rain, moderate temperatures, trees change colors in fall Tropical Rainforests: found in the tropics/near the equator. Great abundance of plant/animal life. Grasslands/Savanna/Steppes: climate is drier, not enough rainfall to support trees. Grasses dominate with grazing animals. Deserts: Receive less than 10 inches of rain/year. Tundra: Soil is so cold trees cannot grow. Found near the poles.

27 Temperate Deciduous Forest

28 Tropical Rainforests

29 Grasslands/Savanna/Steppes

30 Deserts

31 Tundra

32 Review Can you think of any examples of weathering, erosion or deposition that have affected your own community? Which best explains why we experience four season on Earth? the gravitational pull of the moon The distance between Earth and the sun The tilt of the Earth on its axis as it revolves around the sun the effect of tectonic plate movement on Earth’s oceans Answer: C In what way are climate regions and biomes related? The type of climate determines the types of animals and plant life in the area where the climate exists.

33 stop



36 Confluence-when two rivers meet

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