11 The HydrosphereIt is made up of all water on Earth’s surface. 70% of Earth’s surface is covered by oceans.Water circulates through evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff.
12 Where liquid fresh water is found The HydrosphereFormssaltwater—97 percent of world’s waterfreshwater—most frozen in ice caps; less than 1 percent in vapor and liquid formWhere liquid fresh water is foundsurface water—in rivers, lakes, estuaries, wetlandsgroundwater—stored in soil and water table(aquifers)
14 Tides and CurrentsGravitational pull of the moon causes tides, a cyclic rise and fall of the oceans.Ocean water is moved by surface and deep sea currents.
15 The Atmosphere and Weather The atmosphere is an envelope of gases around Earth.The gases of the atmosphere absorb solar radiation, moderate temperatures and distribute water.Orographic PrecipitationWindward SideLeeward Side
16 Effects of mountains and elevation on weather and climate: Increase in elevation causes drop in temperature.Mountains cause orographic effect: moist air meets a barrier and is pushed upward, causing cooling, condensation, and precipitation.Mountainside facing wind is the windward, wetter side; side facing away from wind is the leeward, drier side, called the rain shadow.
18 The Atmosphere and Weather Weather consists of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind.Heating of the atmosphere and Earth’s spin create wind patterns. Surface features like mountains also affect weather.
24 ClimateClimate is determined by average weather conditions over a long period of time.Influenced by: Latitude, Elevation, Winds, Ocean Currents, Mountain Barriers
25 ClimateClimate Regions based on similarities in climate. Examples include Polar Climates and Tropical Climates.High-Latitude Climates: North/South Poles have similar climates with very cold winter temperatures.Mid-Latitude Climates: warm summers and cool winters. Located North of Tropic of Cancer and South of Tropic of CapricornLow-Latitude Climates: tropical climates with warm temperatures. Located between the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn.
26 The Biosphere and Biomes Biosphere refers to all life on Earth.Biomes are variations in climate which lead to distinct regions based on similarities of plant and animal life.Temperate Deciduous Forest: ample rain, moderate temperatures, trees change colors in fallTropical Rainforests: found in the tropics/near the equator. Great abundance of plant/animal life.Grasslands/Savanna/Steppes: climate is drier, not enough rainfall to support trees. Grasses dominate with grazing animals.Deserts: Receive less than 10 inches of rain/year.Tundra: Soil is so cold trees cannot grow. Found near the poles.
32 ReviewCan you think of any examples of weathering, erosion or deposition that have affected your own community?Which best explains why we experience four season on Earth?the gravitational pull of the moonThe distance between Earth and the sunThe tilt of the Earth on its axis as it revolves around the sunthe effect of tectonic plate movement on Earth’s oceansAnswer: CIn what way are climate regions and biomes related?The type of climate determines the types of animals and plant life in the area where the climate exists.