2 Text has cohesion if * * * it is clearly organised so readers can find their way round the ideas*it includes words and phrases thatact like ‘signposts’, helping readersto follow the author’s train ofthought*the writing ‘holds together’, sothat it is easy to read andunderstand.*
3 Coherence Some ways of helping the reader see how your ideas are organised.Layout conventionsHeadings andsubheadingsshow what sortof text it is, e.g.diary, letter,newspaper, article.give an overviewof the text’sorganisation.PunctuationParagraph breaksshows where one chunk ofmeaning ends and anotherbegins. (See The Punctuation Book)show shifts of time, place,viewpoint, topic, etc.* Plan your writing inadvance on a skeletonframework.Presentational devicesdraw attention to sections oftext and make meaning clearere.g.* Frequently re-readyour work to checkorganisation is clear.speech bubbles,timelines, flowcharts, etc.bullet points,boxed information.
4 (See The Sentence Book) Paragraphinga shift oftimea new topic oraspect of a topicParagraph breakscan help readersto follow yourtrain of thoughtby showing…Three weeks later…In 1837,…one paragraphper categorya new step orstage in aprocessa shift ofplaceMeanwhile, deep inthe forest,…a new speakerin direct speech(See The Sentence Book)a move from onemain point (orgroup of pointsto another* In non-fiction writing,plan paragraphsbeforehand.a shift ofmood orviewpoint* In fiction, beware ofall shifts of emphasis.**Suddenly, they leaptInto action…Tom, on the other hand, was furious…
5 Cohesive devices conjunctions sentence connectives sentence frames Words and phrasescan act likesignposts to helpreaders seesignificant links inthe text.These show linksbetween ideaswithin a sentence,e.g. when,because, until,although.Words and phrasesthat show linksbetween onesentence and thenext, e.g.However,Consequently,On the other hand…Connection words, phrases and sentences are importantthroughout written work. However, they are particularlyuseful at the start of a new paragraph.sentenceframespunctuationWhere nouns or verbs act assignposts, you can make a‘sentence frame’, e.g.Begin by…The reason that… is…Some punctuation marks(: ; -) can show linksbetween clauses.Collect examples from textsyou read. Read sentencesaloud to get the feel of thelanguage patterns.Use these ‘signposts’ to linkyour own ideas. Practisethe sentences in speechbefore you write.
6 Time Links sentence connectives conjunctions linking clauses sentence Use time links to show thepassage of time in fictionand recounts.Vary the linking devices sothey guide the readerwithout being too obvious.e.g.setting the scenetime passingconclusionsentenceconnectivesYesterday,…On 4th June 2000,…One wintry morning,…Next,… Then,…After that,…A few weeks later,…By the end of October,…Finally,…Eventually,…At last,…conjunctionslinkingclausesAs time went by,…After she had left,…When Jane wasfour years old,…When it wasall over,…sentenceframesIt all began withan invitation.Several weeks passed.The clockstruck midnight.It was the end ofthe adventure.
7 Cause and effect conjunctions linking clauses sentence connectives The room is cold because the window is open.When the window is open, the room is cold.If the window is open, the room is cold.The window is open so the room is cold.sentenceconnectivesThe window is open.Therefore, the room is cold.Consequently, the room is cold.As a result, the room is cold.sentenceframesThe window is open.This means that the room is cold.This results in the room being cold.This causes the room to be cold.The reason (that) the room is cold is that the window is open.Note that some sentenceframes lead to changesin the form of the verb.Cause and effect links areparticularly important inexplanation writing.
8 + Addition + Opposition and as well tooAlso, Moreover,Furthermore,In addition, What is more,Another point is …A further feature is …but yetwhile whereasHowever, Alternatively,On the other hand,On the contrary,The opposite point of view is…These links are useful indescriptive writingtexts which argue for oragainst a point of view.Comparison, e.g.Contrast, e.g.____________ and _______ aresimilar in several ways.____________ and _______ aredifferent in a number of ways.Onesimilarity is that __________.For instance, __________ is_______, while __________ is____________.Another way in which they arealike is ________.They areboth ____________.Another differenceis that ________.They also differin that _________ is ________,whereas ________is ________.A furtherfeature they have in commonis____________.
9 When the mixture is ready… SequenceIn instructions and explanations, signpost stages in the process,1First,…Begin by…2Secondly,..The next stage is…3Next,…When the mixture is ready…4Finally,…Finish off by…
10 Clarity Introducing definitions Introducing examples Definitions and examples help make meaning clear,Use key words and sentence frames to introduce them.Introducing definitionsIntroducing examplesa bloop, which is a ……………e.g. such as includingFor example, For instance,a ……………, known as a bloopThis can be seen in …a …………… called a bloopThis is illustrated by …a bloop (a …………)Examples include …
11 making references back Holding text together 1Nouns, noun phrasesand pronouns help bindtext together bymaking references backand forward.Make sure pronouns areconsistent in person andnumber. If not, thetext may be confusingto read.Rob knocked on the door.An old woman opened it andstared down at the boy. Hesmiled back. This mustbe Mrs Gunn.If one wants to be a top-classplayer, we have to practisebecause players do not makeit to the top unless yougive a hundred per cent.Use a variety of nouns,noun phrases andpronouns to:avoid repetitionimprove the cohesionof your writing.In impersonal text,stick to third personpronouns. If you startin the singular, don’tdrift into the plural.
12 Holding text together 2 Some texts are mostly past tense: recount narrativefictionSome textsare mostlypresenttense:instructionreportexplanationpersuasiondiscussionMake sure verb tensesare consistent. If not,the text may beconfusing to read.Reported speechis in thepast tense.Direct speechis usuallypresent tense.Exceptionsmost directspeech andquotationsreferences tothings whichcontinue to existbeyond thenarrativesudden changesinto the presenttense for dramaticeffect.The general said thathis men were fitand highly trained.They would beready when theinvasion began.“My men are fitand highly trained.They will beready when theinvasion begins,”said the general.Exceptionshistorical reportsand explanationsreference to orexamples fromthe past.
13 (see The Complex Sentence Book) (see The Standard English Book) Holding text together 3Make sure your overallstyle and viewpoint areconsistent, depending onpurpose and audience.personalorimpersonalI, we, youthird personand/orpassive voice(see The Complex Sentence Book)informalorformal(see The Standard English Book)subjectiveorobjectiveyour opinionjust the facts
14 Skeleton Poster Booksfor GRAMMARThe EndEnd Show