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The War of 1812 Mr. Sandford AP American History.

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1 The War of 1812 Mr. Sandford AP American History

2 The Non-Intercourse Act  March 1809, Congress dropped the embargo and replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act.  Americans could not trade with GB or France, but could trade with other countries.  GB benefited greatly from the act – Why?  Through a deal made with Napoleon, they dropped the embargo against the French, but Napoleon, not keeping his end of the bargain, continued to seize US ships.  France’s actions put the US in a collision course with GB.  GB still was impressing US citizens!

3 The Frontier  The trading issues with France and the issues in the West put GB and the US on a collision course.  GB still had relationships with several NA groups who were resisting expansion. GB saw them as a buffer between the two countries in NA.  GB supported the Shawnee Confederation, led by Tecumseh and “The Prophet”.  Using an obscure Treaty, Gov. Harrison (Indiana Terr.) attacked and killed many NA of the Confederation in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

4 The War Hawks  In 1810 – about 45 new Southern Congressmen swept into office, calling for a war against GB and the Native Americans.  They were led by Henry Clay of Virginia.  These “War Hawks” used:  Land Hunger  British Impressments  Native Atrocities

5 The Declaration  Despite the demands of New England to avoid war Madison asked for War on June 18, 1812.  Even though the US had 3000 soldiers and only 16 navy vessels.  He claimed:  Impressment of US Soldiers  Violation of high sea neutrality.  GB blockade of US ports  GB inciting Native American hostility.

6 Opposition  New England opposed the War.  GB blockade would be a disaster for the their merchant fleet.  Federalist Governors saw the war as “Mr. Madison’s” and would not commit troops.  WHAT THEY DID.  They withheld all of their federal taxes during the war.  The Hartford Convention (1814) – meeting of NE States who proposed leaving the Union. Called by Essex Junto.  Ironic, NE was the first to propose succession.

7 The Military Campaigns  Three pronged attack of Canada failed due to American incompetence.  US burn Toronto.  GB burn Washington DC.  US win battles on Lake Erie and Lake Champlain, which prevented GB counterattacks – Adm. Perry.  On the Open Sea:  US privateers damage GB shipping early.  GB navy overwhelmed US ships along the coast around New England.

8 The War’s Conclusion  Napoleon abdicates in April 1814, leaving America to fight alone.  GB wants to end the war, cost and priorities.  Treaty of Ghent signed Dec. 24, 1814.  No Mention of Impressments.  No mention of Native Americans.  It ends the war and returns all captured land.  GB invades New Orleans (Jan. 1815) and is defeated by Andrew Jackson. Makes him famous and President.

9 The War of 1812 is considered the Second War for Independence. WHY?

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