Presentation on theme: "The War of 1812 Mr. Sandford AP American History."— Presentation transcript:
The War of 1812 Mr. Sandford AP American History
The Non-Intercourse Act March 1809, Congress dropped the embargo and replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act. Americans could not trade with GB or France, but could trade with other countries. GB benefited greatly from the act – Why? Through a deal made with Napoleon, they dropped the embargo against the French, but Napoleon, not keeping his end of the bargain, continued to seize US ships. France’s actions put the US in a collision course with GB. GB still was impressing US citizens!
The Frontier The trading issues with France and the issues in the West put GB and the US on a collision course. GB still had relationships with several NA groups who were resisting expansion. GB saw them as a buffer between the two countries in NA. GB supported the Shawnee Confederation, led by Tecumseh and “The Prophet”. Using an obscure Treaty, Gov. Harrison (Indiana Terr.) attacked and killed many NA of the Confederation in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
The War Hawks In 1810 – about 45 new Southern Congressmen swept into office, calling for a war against GB and the Native Americans. They were led by Henry Clay of Virginia. These “War Hawks” used: Land Hunger British Impressments Native Atrocities
The Declaration Despite the demands of New England to avoid war Madison asked for War on June 18, 1812. Even though the US had 3000 soldiers and only 16 navy vessels. He claimed: Impressment of US Soldiers Violation of high sea neutrality. GB blockade of US ports GB inciting Native American hostility.
Opposition New England opposed the War. GB blockade would be a disaster for the their merchant fleet. Federalist Governors saw the war as “Mr. Madison’s” and would not commit troops. WHAT THEY DID. They withheld all of their federal taxes during the war. The Hartford Convention (1814) – meeting of NE States who proposed leaving the Union. Called by Essex Junto. Ironic, NE was the first to propose succession.
The Military Campaigns Three pronged attack of Canada failed due to American incompetence. US burn Toronto. GB burn Washington DC. US win battles on Lake Erie and Lake Champlain, which prevented GB counterattacks – Adm. Perry. On the Open Sea: US privateers damage GB shipping early. GB navy overwhelmed US ships along the coast around New England.
The War’s Conclusion Napoleon abdicates in April 1814, leaving America to fight alone. GB wants to end the war, cost and priorities. Treaty of Ghent signed Dec. 24, 1814. No Mention of Impressments. No mention of Native Americans. It ends the war and returns all captured land. GB invades New Orleans (Jan. 1815) and is defeated by Andrew Jackson. Makes him famous and President.
The War of 1812 is considered the Second War for Independence. WHY?