Statistics Female pathways into offending Issues women encounter in prison Risk Assessments Ways Forward
Women in prison 3,814 (4.82%) June 2013 www.justice.gov.uk/statistics Age group WomenMen 25-2979614,695 30-391,26621,474 40-4983013,815 Sentence Length Women: 12 months – less than 4 years 1,189 Men: 4 years or more (excluding indeterminate) 23,406
www.justice.gov.uk/statistics Offence TypeMenMale % Change from 2007 Women % Change from 2007 Violence against the person Drug Offences Theft & Handling Stolen Goods Sexual Offences 28.5% 14.5% 5.5% 14.3% +1.3% -0.9% +0.1% +2.9% 26.7% 21.2% 13.2% 2.4% +6.2% -10% +2% +1%
“The most common pathways to crime are based on survival (of abuse and poverty) and substance abuse” (Bloom, Owen & Covington, 2003) Women as victims as well as offenders Relationships Mental illness Substance abuse Little education/work experience Homelessness/Accommodation Loucks, 2004; Corston, 2007; A Distinct Approach: A Guide to Working with Women Offenders – NOMS 2012
Self Harm Separation from children Location of prison from home area Effects of separation on the children Pregnancy/birth in prison Hormonal difficulties
What are risk assessments? “The assessment of risk for future sexual/violent behaviour in patients/offenders with a violent history and/or mental disorder” (De Vogel, 2012)
HCR-20 Assessing Risk for Violence (Webster, Douglas, Eaves & Hart, 1997) Historical (Past) Clinical (Present) Risk Management (Future) H1. Previous Violence H2. Young Age at First Violent Incident H3. Relationship Instability H4. Employment Problems H5. Substance Use Problems H6. Major Mental Illness H7. Psychopathy H8. Early Maladjustment H9. Personality Disorder H10. Prior Supervision Failure C1. Lack of Insight C2. Negative Attitudes C3. Active Symptoms of Major Mental Illness C4. Impulsivity C5. Unresponsive to Treatment R1. Plans Lack Feasibility R2. Exposure to Destabilizers R3. Lack of Personal Support R4. Noncompliance with Remediation Attempts R5. Stress
The Female Additional Manual (FAM) is a recently developed addition to the HCR-20 for assessing risk for violence in women. (De Vogel, de Vries Robbe, van Kalmthout & Place, 2011) Several risk factors for violent behaviour in women differ substantially from those in men. The increased number of violent crimes being committing by women and the different pathways into crime is highlighting the need for gender specific risk assessments.
Profile Miss A: 26 year old female Index offence: Murder Previous offences: theft, assaulting a constable Background Information Parents separated age 7 Neglect and physical and sexual abuse as a child Witnessed domestic violence Behavioural difficulties at school Taken in to care age 12 Substance misuse Pregnancy at young age Postnatal depression Prostitution Prison Behaviour Self harm Low self esteem Manipulation Borderline personality disorder
H6 Major Mental Illness H7 Psychopathy H8 Early Maladjustment H8a Problematic Circumstances during childhood H8b Problematic behaviour during childhood H9 Personality Disorder – cluster B PDs H10 Prior supervision failure H11 Prostitution H12 Parenting difficulties H13 Pregnancy at young age H14 Suicidality/Self harm H15 Victimization after childhood De Vogel, de Vries Robbe, van Kalmthout & Place, 2011
Neglect and physical and sexual abuse as a child Pregnancy at young age Postnatal depression Prostitution Manipulation Self harm Borderline personality disorder Index offence: Murder
The increased number of violent offences committed by women have highlighting the need for gender sensitive risk assessment. The pathways into offending seem to differ from those of males including substance misuse, abuse and mental health problems, prostitution and there are more likely to be missed in traditional risk assessments. FAM development are a step forward in adopting a more gender sensitive approach to assessment and risk and an important factor when assessing risk on female offenders.