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The Learning Cycle (Constructivism and Lesson Design) Text Chapter 6 Course Packet pages 87-95.

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Presentation on theme: "The Learning Cycle (Constructivism and Lesson Design) Text Chapter 6 Course Packet pages 87-95."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Learning Cycle (Constructivism and Lesson Design) Text Chapter 6 Course Packet pages 87-95

2 The Learning Cycle Chapter 6 Link to prior Knowledge (Review) (Anticipatory Set) 271-280 Objective or Purpose (Introduction) 281-282 Presentation (Teacher Input) 282-293 Learner Response (Guided Practice) 293-304 Functional Application (Independent Practice) 304-308 Closure or Summary Constructivism 261-270 Teacher’s Role 270

3 Constructivism  The process by which children acquire and organize information  Associated with theorists: Piaget and Vygotsky  Children develop intelligence not by being told, but by building their own understandings

4 Piaget  Schemata gradually become more complex  Happens through a sequence of adaptation 1. Assimilation 2. Disequilibrium 3. Accommodation  Motivation comes from children’s drive to either assimilate into or accommodate schemata in response to new experiences in their environment

5 Constructivist Learning  A problem-solving process by which learners are intrinsically driven to construct meaning from a new learning challenge  Happens when the learner’s experiences are triggered or activated by the challenge of a new learning situation  Teacher’s role is to create challenging situations for learners

6 Cognitive vs. Social Constructivism  Cognitive The idea that learning occurs within each individual learner  Social The idea that learning occurs when people work together to make sense out of their world

7 Social Constructivism  Centers on positive adult-student and student-student relationships  Teachers make available absorbing materials and intriguing situations  Teachers engage students in activities and provide some sort of systematized instruction and intervention

8 Vygotsky  Believed that humans are different from animals because they make and use tools (physical and mental)  Humans pass on knowledge and skills through language during verbal interactions  Zones of Development Zone of Actual Development: learning tasks are completed individually with no assistance Zone of Proximal Development: learning tasks are completed with just the right amount of assistance

9 Scaffolding  When teachers offer just the right amount of help for students as they attempt to bridge the gap between what they already know and what they need to learn  Provides temporary support (cueing, questioning, coaching, assistance)

10 The Learning Cycle  Learning cycle is a student-centered, problem solving teaching approach that creates conceptual change through social interactions  Three major elements Exploration Concept/skill Development Concept/skill Application

11 Lesson Design Menu Appetizer (Exploration) Main Course (Concept Development) Dessert (Concept Application) Focus and Review Statement of Objective Teacher Input Presentation Guided Practice Independent Practice Closure

12 Exploration Phase  Purpose Activate prior knowledge Draw students into the lesson Focus students’ attention on task with clear purpose

13 Activating prior knowledge  Goal is to establish a connection between what they know and the new information (advanced organizers, anticipatory set, external mediators)  External Mediator Class discussion Provocative objects Graphic outlines of material to be covered

14 Discussion Sequence  Existing knowledge  Thought association  Rapid recognition  Quick lesson review  Open discussion

15 Graphic Organizers  Bubble trees  Prediction charts  K-W-L  Venn Diagrams  Cycles  Thinking Maps (see Course Packet p. 95)

16 Establishing a Clear Purpose  Children ask: “Why is this important?”  Knowing what is expected is important  Must be linked to prior knowledge and lessons  Generally comes last during introductory sequence  Focuses student attention

17 The Development Phase  This is the main learning experience  This is III. Teacher Input or Presentation  Key Questions: What basic concepts or skills are to be taught? What learning materials should be used? How can the teacher help students construct key concepts and skills? What strategies can be used to ensure that students understand and master the skill?

18 Teaching the Concept  1 Provide Information  Explain the concept  Define the concept  Provide examples of the concept  Model  2 Check for understanding  Pose key questions  Ask students to explain concept/definition in their own words  Encourage students to generate their own examples

19 Concepts and Examples  Community Wilmington Washington, DC Tokyo  Mountain Mt. Everest Mt. Fuji Grandfather Mountain  Island Hawaii Cuba Wrightsville Beach  Justice Taking turns Writing down rules Applying rules equally to everyone

20 Factstorming  Process of finding relevant details associated with a concept Concept Fact

21 Task Analysis  Skills are mental or physical operations having a specific set of actions that are developed through practice  Task analysis: process of identifying component parts of skills and sequencing the steps  Modeling of skills is highly effective and efficient

22 Materials for Instruction  Bruner’s three level of learning  Enactive  Iconic  Symbolic  Select materials that represent a balance of these three levels

23 Assisting students as they construct key concepts  Use of language-based strategies General instructional conversations Small group instructional conversations Graphic organizers  Conceptual  Sequential  Cyclical  Hierarchical

24 Questioning Strategies  Two types of questions: Purposes? Closed Open-ended  Art of Questioning (Dewey) p. 297  Framing questions and “Wait time” Ask question Pause 3 – 5 seconds Call on someone to respond Pause 3 – 5 more seconds to give think time

25 Concept/Skill Application Phase  Opportunity to apply and practice new skill or concept through special projects or independent activities  Two parts: Guided Practice Independent Practice or Functional Application  Should result in constructing deeper meaning

26 Guided Practice  Many kinds of practice for new learning  Use of concept mapping/graphic organizers Conceptual Sequential Cyclical Hierarchical  Thinking Maps

27 Independent Practice  Independent Activities – (different activity from Guided Practice!)  Focus on creativity and choice  Provide for extension, application, relevance, and usefulness

28 Closure  Involves summarizing, sharing, reviewing, extending the concept  May provide transition to new lesson or learning

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