Presentation on theme: "Deaf Culture Connections Day!!!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Deaf Culture Connections Day!!! (test rows) Please have your desks cleared off (except your composition book or paper, pen/pencil): all phones, music, and other materials put away---voice day--- powerpoint presentation -this material will be on next Thursday’s test, and the final exam
2 ASL in the USA:The 3rd/4th most used language in this country!Approx. 3 in 1000 have severe hearing lossAverage deaf person graduates high school with a 3-4th grade reading levelWhile research shows English skills are best acquired through ASL, the majority of the medical community still encourages hearing parents to avoid signing!!!millions of deaf or hard of hearing people in this country90% of deaf children are born to hearing parents
3 What is Language? ---A real language develops naturally, when people wish to communicateAmerican Sign Language is a real language
4 What is Language? ---A real language develops naturally, when people wish to communicateAmerican Sign Language is a real languageDeaf children need a REAL language beginning at a young age (ASL!)To force them into Oralism=similar to the story of forcing a child who only knows English to read lips and try to learn while the teacher speaks only Cantonese, while every class subject is written in German.Lip reading- 30% from lips at the MOST (also view “body language”, context, etc.)Speech Therapy- like piano lessons: can be great, but it depends on the individual.Saying “algebra” should not be more important than understanding algebra!
5 “The Greatest Irony” Select Image 16 Select Image 16Image not stored here due to copyright.Please look up the cartoon from Maureen KluszaBe able to explain the cartoon’s significance
6 What are some benefits of taking ASL? Learning a language (whether your first, second, third, etc…)Activates your brain!!!Awareness and appreciation of other culturesSocialize with members of the Deaf communityImproved understanding of grammar (helps you with the TAKS test)Raises at your current jobVocational training- more than 90 open educational positions right now in Texas!!! (schools, VRS, etc)Professional future- interpreter certification, teacher certification, increased business opportunitiesWhat are some benefits of taking ASL?
7 Each of you has a culture! ASL class includes:VocabularyGrammarCultureEach of you has a culture!
8 What is the difference between Deaf and deaf? Deaf (note the capital “D” = culturally Deafdeaf (note the lower case “d”= a clinical/medical term, a diagnosis, degree of hearing lossCulturally Deaf people are proud to be Deaf and feel that Deafness is a vital part of their identity, cherished as much as ethnicity,gender,and religiousbackground.
9 Okay, now between these two terms, which is the culturally appropriate one? hard of hearing:a term for people with a mild, moderate, or severe hearing loss. This group of people usually can transition back and forth between the Deaf and hearing cultures.hearing impaired: This term is considered highly offensive in Deaf culture.Just as "deaf-mute" and "deaf and dumb" are inappropriate labels, "hearing impaired" is an outdated way to collectively label people with any level of hearing loss. It does not account for cultural identity.An appropriate exception: Elderly people with a hearing loss developed late in life.This term is often used in the school and medical communities (from a clinical perspective).
10 Cultures have norms, ways of doing things that members share in common What is a culture?Concept of Deaf pride(deaf president now)
11 Comfort levels are different based on your cultural values (within your family, community, country, etc.). Deaf culture strongly values constant eye contact! -- eye contact = respect(Note that in some cultures: respect is to avoid eye contact)When you watch signing, do you look at the hands or the eyes?The eyes! Use your peripheral vision Eye contact:
12 Deaf cultureAttention-getting behaviors: waving a hand, creating vibrations, pointing, gentle tap--- these are not rude in Deaf cultureDeaf culture norms for introductions and leave-taking (leaving a room, party, etc.)– Wilcox book
13 Martha’s Vineyard (Massachusetts) High rate of genetic deafness (1 of every 155 persons; towns – 1 of every 25; neighborhoods – 1 of every 4); nineteenth century America (1 of every 5,700 people)
14 Other causes of deafness in Early America? High feverScarlet feverUnknown…Spotted fever (ticks)Scarlet fever (bacterial infection)Typhus fever (fleas)Lung fever (pneumonia)AccidentsWhooping cough (respiratory infection)Smallpox
15 Cameron, 2005; http://www.lifeprint.co mcc Early in the 17th century, members of the deaf community in County Kent Weald, England moved to Martha’s Vineyard.
16 The language they brought with them has been referred to as Kent Sign Language. Kent Sign Language continued to develop, and in time came to be known as Chilmark Sign Language in the 17th - 18th century.This eventually became known as Martha’s Vineyard Sign Language.
17 Cameron, 2005; http://www.lifeprint.comcc In 1817, the school now known as the American School for the Deaf opened in Hartford, Connecticut. (Gallaudet; Clerc)The students from Martha’s Vineyard were sent to Hartford as a group.As a group, they apparently continued to use their native sign language. In time, Martha’s Vineyard Sign Language and other “home signs” became absorbed within the French-based sign language being taught at the school. What is the historical significance of Martha’s Vineyard Sign Language?Cameron, 2005;
18 Summary:First school in Hartford Conn. (American Asylum): Students used Old Signed English in the classroom and indigenous signs outside the classroomGallaudet did not recognize the out-of-class signs as an independent, grammatical language“Natural signing” is Old American Sign LanguageASL is a mixture: early methodical signs, OFSL, indigenous languagesOld signs OFSL(home signs, in the USAMVSL)Old ASLASL (modern)
19 Deaf Education in the USA--- Gallaudet (with Clerc’s help) found the first school for the Deaf in the USA, 1817In the USA, most of the students were taught by Deaf instructors, or those who supported natural signing1880 Congress of Milan, Italy banned the use of signs- hearing men excluded the Deaf teachers,and returned to change Deaf educationin the USA (“Dark Ages” of Deaf Ed.)
20 Dark Ages of Deaf Education-- Oralism fueled by ignoranceAlexander Graham Bell (thoughtthere was a “contagious” factor, as didmany who did not understand)After years of struggles in education, Total Communication was allowed in the 1970’sSigned English was invented by a group of hearing men to “allow” signs but not a separate language- it was to allow only “visual” English on the handsSigned English systems are not true languages--- how can you recognize the difference?
21 Manually Coded English Various types (Signed English, Signing Exact English/SEE, etc.) example: SEE 1972Invented by hearing, adding English initials to many ASL signs, and adding “markers” such as prepositions, conjunctions, etc.Goal is to use some hand signals while speaking English. Lip movements (and often voice) are important.Sound-based- it does not “make sense” visuallyIt was made for hearing people to teach “spoken” and written English in schools!
22 From ASL to SEE You will see people signing all Varieties from strict ASL toexact Signed English.Schools vary greatly in their approaches:some use strict Oralism, someTotal Communication,some use ASL (bilingual method) KThere are many cultural and other factors that decide what a person will sign.You will naturally find it easier to use Signed English, as it was made to be easier for hearing people.The real language itself- ASL, is more challenging, becau s e it is in fact a different language.Be proud you are learning ASL!