Presentation on theme: "The Road to the Revolution “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!”"— Presentation transcript:
The Road to the Revolution “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!”
Tighter British Control King George III had two problems after the French and Indian War. 1. It had to be paid for. 2. Tighten his control in the colonies. The colonists who are used to managing their own affairs feel their freedoms are being threatened.
Proclamation of 1763 The Proclamation of 1763 forbade the colonists to settle beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Designed to keep the peace between the Native Americans and the colonists. The colonists are angry feeling that the point of the war was to gain access to more land. In order to enforce the proclamation the King kept 10,000 British soldiers in the colonies.
Problems & Solutions 1. It cost money to keep the soldiers in the colonies. 2.British owed massive debts from the French and Indian War. SOLUTION!!! Parliament looked to the colonies to pay part of the war cost.
Sugar Act In 1764 Parliament passed the Sugar Act to raise funds. The law places taxes on sugar and molasses (used to make rum) and other goods shipped to the colonies. Colonists are angry! Colonists try to avoid this tax by smuggling. Sam Adams and James Otis started protest against Sugar Act. 50 merchants from Boston decided to stop buying British luxury imports.
Stamp Act Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 and was the first direct tax imposed on the American Colonies in order to raise money for the military defense of the Colonies. The law required all legal and commercial documents carry an official stamp showing that tax had been paid. (newspapers, legal documents, advertisements, almanacs, licenses, playing cards, etc…) The colonists are angered by this “taxation without representation” in Parliament. They form the Stamp Act Congress to resist the law. The law is repealed in 1766.
Quotes “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!” Colonists 1765 What does this mean? “If this be treason, make the most of it.” Patrick Henry 1765 What does this mean
Sons of Liberty The colonies organized themselves to petition the King against the Stamp Act. In 1765 secret societies such as the Sons of Liberty formed. Occasionally encourage people to attack customs officials and burn stamps. Many officials quit their jobs and returned to England.
Quartering Act The cost of keeping soldiers in the colonies was high. Parliament passed the Quartering Act in 1765 The law required colonists to house all of the British soldiers. Colonists resist attempts to make them take on this expense and question the need for a standing army during a time of peace. British Parliament suspended New York’s local legislature even though it never actually took place.
A Matter of Perspective: The King and Parliament Acts were reasonable ways to raise money to help pay for Britain’s debt. The colonists benefitted from the war, why shouldn’t they help pay for it. Colonial Governments and Colonists The acts were a threat to their freedom. Parliament had no right to tax the colonies, that was the job of the colonial assemblies. (Local government) No tax should be created without their consent. They had no representation in Parliament.
What is a terrorist? Definition: a person who employs terror or terrorism, esp as a political weapon. 1. What methods did the Sons of Liberty and others use to protest the acts? 2. How does the “side” you are on affect your perspective? 3. Does this change your opinion of our founding fathers? Why or why not?
The Declaratory Act 1766 After repealing the Stamp Act, Parliament passes the Declaratory Act. Stated the British government has authority over the Colonies “in all cases whatsoever”. (including taxes) While the colonists celebrated, Parliament plotted.
The Townshend Acts The Townshend Act was passed in 1767 named for British statesman Charles Townshend. The act placed duties on paper, paint, lead, and tea in order to help finance the cost of administrating the Colonies. It allowed for writs of assistance (search warrants) to enter homes and businesses looking for smuggled goods. Boston merchants refuse to pay the tax and establish nonimportation agreements that spread to other colonies. In October 1768, British troops arrive in Boston to keep order and enforce the Townshend Acts.
Political Activism Anger spread through the colonies over another tax being passed without their consent. The colonies start another boycott and begin uniting against Parliament. In 1766 the Daughters of Liberty were active participants in the rebellion against Parliament.
The Boston Massacre British troops were sent to Boston to keep order and enforce Townshend Acts. On March 5, 1770 a group of colonists surrounded British soldiers in front of the state house. Insults, snowballs, and other things began to fly. Fearing for their safety the soldiers fired into the crowd killing 5 colonists. One of the dead was Crispus Attucks a former slave.
The Tea Act April 1770 Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts. They kept the tax on the Tea to show the colonists who had the power. Colonists refused to buy British tea and instead bought smuggled tea. British merchants lost money. In an attempt to save the British tea merchants Parliament passed the Tea Act in 1773.
Tea Act Continued Law gave one company, East India Trading Company, the only rights to sell tea. This act lowered the price of tea. It restricted the colonists from acting as shippers and merchants of this valuable product.
Questions 1. What’s so big about tea? 2. Why was King George fighting for control? 3. If the colonists got tea at a cheaper price why were they still angry? 4. How would American business be affected? 5. What American product would you compare to tea?
Colonies Unite Colonial leaders began to understand the importance of unity among the colonies. Samuel Adams encourage committees of correspondence. These groups exchanged secret letters about resistance and colonial affairs.
The Boston Tea Party The Sons of Liberty organized the Boston Tea Party. Dec. 16, 1773 during the night they dressed up as Native Americans and dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor. Colonists rejoiced and British officials were angry at the destruction of property and wanted the culprits punished.
The Coercive Acts In 1774 Parliament passed a series of acts to punish Boston and scare the other colonies out of rebellion. The colonists renamed these acts the Intolerable Acts. They saw them as a direct attack on the colonists rights and liberties.
Parts of the Acts 1. Closed the port of Boston until the tea was paid for. 2. Town meetings were banned. 3. Replaced elected officials with British appointed leaders. 4. Increased the governors power over the colonies. 5. Protected British officials accused of crimes in the colonies from being tried by colonists. 6. Allowed British officers to house troops in private dwellings.
First Continental Congress Other colonies offered MA their support. September 1774 delegates from all colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia (First Continental Congress) Voted to ban all trade with Britain until the Intolerable Acts were repealed. They began to train troops.
Answer the following questions. 1. As British subjects did the colonists have an obligation to help pay off their countries debts? Why or why not? 2. Was Parliament being unreasonable? Why or why not? 3. Why were the colonists so angry about the taxes? 4. What would you have done?