2 What is AP Style?Associate Press Stylebook is most commonly used manual for writers and communicators across the world.Contains definitions and references on the correct usage of words, as well as punctuation, abbreviations, and capitalization.Very different from commonly-known MLA Style.
3 Purpose- why do we need AP style? The content of newspapers and other mass media is typically the result of many different writers and editors working together. AP style provides consistent guidelines for such publications in terms of grammar, spelling, punctuation and language usage. Some guiding principles behind AP style are:ConsistencyClarityAccuracyBrevityAP style also aims to avoid stereotypes and unintentionally offensive language.
4 Why have a stylebook? It comes down to consistency. There often are two or more generally accepted ways to refer to wordsal-Qaida vs. al Qaida, al-Qaeda, etc.When a Great Recession happens, folks look to AP.AP, and those who buy the AP Stylebook, value having someone make those calls.
5 How many opportunities for inconsistent presentation in this sentence? President Obama, speaking yesterday at a ball game in the Mideast, told thirty-seven 7th graders that United States policies enforced by his cabinet are okay if handled by Web masters, s, and the internet.
7 So, how do I use AP Style?The Associated Press Stylebook provides an A-Z guide to issues such as capitalization, abbreviation, punctuation, spelling, numerals and many other questions of language usage.Look up words, phrases, titles, punctuation, etc. in alphabetical order.Punctuation guide located in rear of book.Use to reference states, titles, sports and slang.
9 Where do I find this stuff? AP has a searchable stylebook on the InternetStudents and professionals can subscribe.
10 CapitalsProper nounsEx: John Gross, Harrison High School, Kennesaw
11 Capitals Proper nouns “Real” titles directly before names Ex. Principal William Griggers
12 Capitals Proper nouns “Real” titles directly before namesd Legislative bodies: Council, AssemblyEx: Cobb County School District Board, Kennesaw City Council
13 Capitals Names of holidays, but not seasons Labor Day, Mother’s Day, Christmasfall, spring, winter, summer, spring break
14 CapitalsCapitalize the names of books, movies, songs, TV shows, etc. when the full name is used“Cather in the Rye”“Born This Way”“The Simpsons”
15 Capitals Well-Known regions ARE capitalized Southern CaliforniaThe Eastern SeaboardThe Deep SouthGeneral compass directions are NOTsoutheastern Oregonwestern Canada
16 More Capital Don’tsPlurals: the departments of Labor and Justice; the Tennessee and Ohio riversCompass directionsShorthand names on second reference, or generic referencesEx: teacher, volunteer, student
17 Numbers Figures or words? -Spell out numbers 1-9 (one through nine) and use figures for 10 and higher-Use commas in numbers with four or more digits, except for addresses and years
18 Numbers Figures or words? -Billion and million can be used with round numbersEx: 3 billion, 59 million-Numbers more than a million can be rounded offEx: 2.75 million instead of 2,754,123
19 Numbers: exceptions Ages are always figures Dimensions (inches, feet, yards)Percentages-Percentages are always followed by the word “percent” and not the symbol (%)
20 AbbreviationsTo abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question.
21 AbbreviationsTo abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question.Some things are always abbreviated: FBI, CNN.
22 AbbreviationsTo abbreviate or not to abbreviate, that is the question…Spell out names of organizations, firms, agencies, universities and colleges, groups, clubs or governmental bodies the first time the name is used.Abbreviate these names on second reference likeAssociated Student Body (ASB)National Organization for Women (NOW)Commonly known acronyms are always abbreviatedFBI, CNN, APSome are abbreviated in specific usagesdoctor vs. Dr. Jones; Wis. vs. Wisconsin.
23 AbbreviationsDo not use an abbreviation on acronym in parentheses after the first reference of a full name.WRONG: The Parent Teacher Student Organization (PTSO) meets tonight.RIGHT The Parent Teacher Student Organization meet tonight.Don’t use unfamiliar acronyms without context.WRONG:The PTSO was formed in 2010.
24 Abbreviations In street addresses abbreviate these: Street=St Goober St.Avenue=Ave Loblolly Ave.Boulevard=Blvd. 80 Crabtree Blvd.But the words road, alley, circle, drive, lane, etc. are never abbreviated.205 Patriot Lane856 Cheddar Circle1256 Glen Ridge Road
25 Abbreviations and Titles “Coach” is considered a job description, not a formal titleFootball coach Mike Sovacool also teaches history.Professor is not a proper noun and NEVER abbreviated before a nameMrs. Sellors favorite instructor in college was professor Jennifer Dail.Assistant Principal is a specific title, so it IS capsThe student punched Assistant Principal Penny Parker in the face.
26 Titles and NamesUse full identification in first reference but in second reference use last name onlyAli Gonzalez (first reference)Gonzalez (second reference)Karina Carnley (first reference)Carnley (second reference)UNLESS there are two people with the same last name in your story (siblings or family members, usually). Then you use their first initial and last nameH. Smith and M. SmithWhile proper titles are capitalized when placed before a persons name (except for the word president), titles that follow a persons name are not capitalized.Penny Parker, assistant principal, set the gym on fire.Vilma Everette, high school counselor, is a good story-teller.
27 TitlesDo not use courtesy titles -- Mr. Mrs. Miss etc. -- unless not using them would cause confusion.For example, you might want to use them when both members of a married couple are quoted in the news article.Mr. Sovacool, Mrs. SovacoolMr. Hartman, Mrs. Hartman
28 Time referencesUse days of the week within seven days of an event. Otherwise specify the date.Time in newspaper usage is always a.m. or p.m.Don’t use tonight with a.m. or this morning with a.m. because it is redundant.Don’t use the terms yesterday and tomorrow to describe when an event occurred.
29 Time references There is neither a 12 a.m. or a 12 p.m. Use noon or midnight.In describing when an event happens use the day of the week if the event occurs in the last week or the next week.Use the calendar date if the event is longer than a week ago or farther than a week off.
30 Time ReferencesGenerally its more readable to put the time before the date when an event will occur.RIGHT: The train arrives at 3 p.m. Jan. 3.WRONG: The train arrives on Jan. 3 at 3 p.m.Never put both the day of the week and the date that an event will occur.RIGHT: The firemans’ ball will be on Jan. 3.WRONG: The firemans’ ball will be on Monday Jan. 3.
31 Word usageIf you do not recognize a word, look it up.
32 Word usage If you do not recognize a word, look it up. Be sensitive to distinctions: burglary, larceny, robbery, theft; homicide, murder, manslaughter; pedal, peddle.
33 Word usage If you do not recognize a word, look it up. Be sensitive to distinctions: burglary, larceny, robbery, theft; homicide, murder, manslaughter; pedal, peddle.Trademarks: photocopy vs. Xerox, Kleenex vs. tissues
34 Punctuation A colon is used in clock time 8:15 a.m., 9:15 p.m., 10 a.m.NOT 1000 a.m.The hyphen is used in phrasal adjectivesa 7-year-old boy an off-the-cuff opiniona little-known manBut the hyphen is not used in sequences in which the adverb has an -ly suffix.a relatively weird studentIn combinations of a number, plus a unit of measurement3-inch bug, a 6-foot man
35 Punctuation A hyphen is always used with the prefix “ex” ex-president ex-chairmanThe comma is omitted before Roman numerals and before Jr. and Sr. in names.Adlai Stevenson III, John Elliot Jr.
36 Hyphens Hyphens—use sparingly. Distinguish between compound adjectives (hyphenated) and adverb-adjective combos (no hyphens).
37 HyphensHyphen is not the same as a dash, which can work like a comma or parenthesis to emphasize or set apart.-—
38 Quotation marksCommas and periods always, always, always inside (in U.S. usage).
39 Quotation marksCommas and periods always, always always inside (in U.S. usage).Question marks, exclamation points depend on the sense of the sentence.
40 ApostrophesSpecial rules for possessives: plural nouns not ending in s, plural nouns ending in s, nouns plural in form singular in meaning, nouns the same in singular and plural, etc.
41 ApostrophesThe ’20s.Not the 20’s.Four A’s and two B’s.ABCs, VIPs.
43 Colons He promised this: The company will make good on all the losses. There were three considerations: expense, time and feasibility.
44 SemicolonsHe was survived by a son, John Smith, of Chicago; three daughters, Jane Smith of Wichita, Kan., Mary Smith, of Denver, and Susan of Boston; and a sister, Martha, of Omaha, Neb.Can be used to link independent clauses but may signal complexity.
45 PrefixesGenerally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.
46 PrefixesGenerally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.Nonprofit, but non-nuclear.
47 PrefixesGenerally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.Nonprofit, but non-nuclear.Cooperate and coordinate, otherwise hyphenate: re-elect.
48 PrefixesGenerally do not use a hyphen with a word starting with a consonant.Cooperate and coordinate, otherwise hyphenate: re-elect.