2 Effects of Industrialization European countries industrializeNeed raw materials to make goodsNeed markets to sell those goodsStrong European countries seize weaker African countries: this is IMPERIALISM
3 Control of Africa Europeans in 1400’s could not control Africa African armies kept them outAs late as 1880 Europeans only controlled 10% of Africa (mostly along coast)
4 The Congo Leopold II of Belgium sends Henry Stanley into Africa Makes treaties that give Leopold control of territory 80 times bigger than BelgiumThis area belonged to Leopold personallyTens of millions of Africans died harvesting rubber sapThe Belgium government took control from LeopoldOther nations began claiming parts of Africa
6 Belief in European Superiority Racism-Europeans believed their race was superior to othersThis was based on Social DarwinismSocial Darwinism was off shoot of Darwin’s ideas on natural selection and survival of the fittestSince non-Europeans had not made scientific and technological breakthroughs they were considered to be on a lower scale
8 Africa’s Wealth Europeans discovered gold and diamonds in Africa This began the “Scramble for Africa”
9 Raw Materials Gold Copper Tin Diamonds Cash crops-peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber (these crops replaced food crops and led to starvation)
10 Factors Promoting Imperialism TechnologyMachine gunsSteam engine allowed for river boats and trainsDrug quinine helped control malariaAfricans were not united—Europeans fostered rivalries
11 Berlin Conference Quest for Africa brought Europeans to brink of war Europeans met in Berlin, Germany to set rulesA nation could claim lands if they notified other countries AND showed they could control the areaNo African leaders were invited to the conference
12 South Africa and The Boer War South Africa had the highest concentration of white settlers (200,000 by 1865).Dutch settlers were known as Boers or Afrikaners.During Napoleonic Wars area seized by BritishBritish encouraged settlement.British named area Cape Colony.
13 Boer Republics1830’s Boers disgusted with British rule and migrate northCalled “The Great Trek”Set up two states—Orange Free State and Transvaal (later called South African Republic)
16 Cecil Rhodes Started gold and diamond operations in South Africa Gained control of territory north of Transvaal which he named Rhodesia.Championed British expansion in AfricaAppointed Prime Minister of Cape ColonyDismissed when discovered he planned to overthrow South African Republic without British approval.
17 Boer Wars British v Boers 1899-1902 Boer resistance angered British Extreme reprisals burnt crops and forced 120,000 women and children into campsAt least 20,000 diedBritish wonCreated Union of South Africa that contained old Cape Colony and Boer Republics
19 African NationalismEuropean colonialism exposed Africans to western ideas.A new class of African leaders had been educated in colonial schools and or in western nations.These new leaders learned of ideas such as democracy, equality, and political freedom.These leaders mostly came to resent the Europeans for the hypocrisy of teaching these ideas while practicing the complete opposite.
20 Inequity Leads to Discontent While many Africans became educated and were very capable of working in the colonial governments they were segregated from whites and kept in low level positions.Segregation, racism and inequity led to discontent among the educated and middle class Africans.By the early 20th century native peoples across Africa began to organize political parties and movements to end colonial rule.
21 Organized MovementsNigerians formed “Peoples Union” to help fight for more rights.In South Africa, many African leaders came together to form the African National Congress (ANC) Still active today.Describe similarities between the position of the Africans under colonial rule and the position of the Third Estate in France before the French Revolution.