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NCEA AS 90947 S1.8 Chemical Reactions NCEA L1 Science 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "NCEA AS 90947 S1.8 Chemical Reactions NCEA L1 Science 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 NCEA AS 90947 S1.8 Chemical Reactions NCEA L1 Science 2012

2 Types of reactions In this standard a selection of the main types of chemical reactions are studied: 1. combination reaction. 2.precipitation (exchange) reaction. 3.displacement reaction. 4.thermal decomposition reaction. The objectives include: Recognise changes that indicate one of the above reactions have taken place. Recall the identifying features of each type of reaction. Write Chemical equations for each type of reaction. Produce new products by selecting the appropriate reaction type. (practical) Predict outcomes of reactions. Application of knowledge of reaction types to a technology.

3 Chemical reactions - naming reactants & products - and recognising chemical change
A chemical reaction is a process that produces a chemical change to one or more substances. A chemical reaction will produce a new substance. Other observations may include a temperature change, a colour change or production of gas. Chemicals that are used in a chemical reaction are known as reactants. Those that are formed are known as products.

4 Chemical equations Compounds and elements can react together to form new substances in a chemical reaction. We use a chemical equation to show the substances we start with called reactants, and the substances that are formed called products.

5 Balancing Chemical equations
Balanced equations must have the same number of atoms on each side of the equation i.e. reactants and products. 2Na H2O = NaOH H2 H H O O H H H H Na Na Na Na O O H H 5

6 Combination reaction Combination reactions occur when two or more reactants combine to form one product. An example is a metal and oxygen forming a metal oxide or a metal and a non-metal reacting to form a ionic compound. These are limited to simple reactions of elements with other elements (such as magnesium or sulfur with oxygen, iron with sulfur etc).

7 Combination - Metals form oxides by reaction with oxygen
Metals react with oxygen in the air to produce metal oxides, like magnesium oxide. Electrons are lost from the metal to form a cation (positive ion) and gained by the oxygen to form an anion – oxide (negative ion). The cation and anion then join together to form a neutral metal oxide.

8 Combination - Metals form oxides by reaction with oxygen
2Mg O → MgO Magnesium Oxygen Magnesium Oxide 12p +ve -ve 12p 8

9 Ionic compounds are the product of chemical reactions between metal and non-metal ions
Write down the ions (with charges) that react to form the compound. Cation comes before Anion. Al O Cross and drop the charge numbers Place brackets around a compound ion. Al2O3 4. If the numbers are both the same remove. 5. If any of the numbers are a 1 they are removed 6. Remove any brackets if not followed by a number H+ SO4-2 H2(SO4) H2SO4 9

10 Precipitation (exchange) reactions
Precipitation reactions occur when two solutions react together to form a solid that settles out of the solution. The solid formed is called the precipitate. An example is a lead (II) nitrate solution mixed with a potassium iodide solution to form a lead iodide precipitate. These are limited to precipitation reactions such as the formation of: chlorides of silver and lead sulfates of barium and lead hydroxides of copper, iron(II), iron(III), calcium, and magnesium carbonates of copper, iron(II), zinc, calcium, and magnesium ions.

11 Precipitation - What’s going on?
When ionic compounds are in solution the ions remain separated from each other and mixed amongst the water molecules. If solutions are added to each other and a new combination of ions (an anion and a cation) are more attracted to each other than the water molecules then a solid ionic compound precipitate forms. The other ions not forming a precipitate remain in solution.

12 Solubility Rules Ion Rule Exceptions
Some ions will join together to form precipitates and are insoluble. Other ions will not form precipitates and are soluble. Ion Rule Exceptions nitrate soluble chloride silver and lead sulfate lead, calcium, barium carbonate insoluble sodium hydroxides

13 e.g. CaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) g ? Na+ CO32- Ca2+ - ? 2Cl-
Solubility Grid When adding one ionic solution to another we use a solubility grid to decide if a precipitate has formed or not. e.g. CaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) g ? Na+ CO32- Ca2+ - ? 2Cl- The Na+ and the Cl- ions are dissolved in solution in the beginning and remain in solution at the end. They are not involved in the precipitation reaction so they are known as spectator ions. They do not need to be written in the equations for the reactions.

14 NaCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Ionic Equations Ionic compounds in solution break down into their ions. dissolving NaCl(s) Na+(aq) Cl-(aq) Write ionic solution equations for the following potassium hydroxide b. sodium nitrate c. magnesium chloride d. copper sulfate e. sodium carbonate f. aluminum nitrate

15 Ionic Equations Write only the ions that are used in forming the precipitate. The other ions are known as spectators and can be left out of the equation. Include the states of the reactants - (aq) aqueous and products - (S) solid.

16 Displacement reaction
Displacement reactions occur when a metal and salt (metal + non-metal ionic compound) solution are mixed and the more reactive metal replaces the metal in the salt. An example would be reacting magnesium metal and copper sulfate to produce magnesium sulfate plus copper metal. These are limited to the displacement of metal ions in solution by other metals.

17 Displacement reaction
Metal displacement equations A more reactive metal will displace a less active metal from a solution. For example, if you place magnesium in a solution of copper sulfate, the magnesium will dissolve and the copper will be deposited on the bottom of the container. This can be represented by a word equation: magnesium + copper sulfate → magnesium sulfate + copper Mg CuSO → MgSO Cu If you place calcium in a solution of zinc nitrate, the calcium will dissolve and zinc will be deposited on the bottom of the container. The word equation for this reaction is as follows: calcium + zinc nitrate → calcium nitrate + zinc 2Ca Zn(NO3) → CaNO Zn

18 Thermal decomposition reaction
Thermal decomposition reactions occur when one substance is broken apart with the use of heat energy into two or more smaller substances. An example is copper carbonate heated which breaks down into carbon dioxide and copper oxide. These are limited to thermal decomposition of carbonates and hydrogen carbonates.

19 Thermal decomposition reaction
Equations for thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate: calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide CaCO CaO CO2 Equations for the thermal decomposition of copper carbonate: copper carbonate copper oxide + carbon dioxide CuCO CuO CO2 Equations for the thermal decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate: Sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water 2NaHCO Na2CO CO H2O

20 Thermal Decomposition
Combination Precipitation Is there a precipitate? Metal Metal Cation (2) Cation (1) Oxide yes Metal Anion (1) Anion (1) no Is there a precipitate? Cation (2) Cation (1) Metal yes Oxide Anion (2) Anion (2) Oxygen no Displacement Thermal Decomposition Metal (2) Metal (2) Metal Oxide Salt Metal Carbonate Metal (1) Metal (1) Salt Carbon Dioxide NCEA L1 Science 2012

21 Thermal Decomposition
Reaction summary Combination Precipitation Is there a precipitate? Cation (1) Anion (1) Solution Cation (2) Anion (1) Metal yes no Metal Oxide Cation (2) Anion (2) Solution Cation (1) Anion (2) Is there a precipitate? Oxygen yes no Displacement Thermal Decomposition Metal (2) Salt Metal (2) Carbon Dioxide Metal Carbonate Metal (1) Metal (1) Salt Metal Oxide NCEA L1 Science 2012

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